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Map of Gochang, Hwasun, and Ganghwa Dolmen
Of these Korean dolmen sites, I only visited the big one at Ganghwa Island (near Seoul). No entrance fee there, though the dolmen is placed in a little park and there is the ubiquitous soft drink vending machine.
To simply get there, and to enjoy the Ganghwa landscape was the most interesting part of my visit. The dolmen itself is "just" 3 stones put on top of each other. I have seen those before in Holland.
But I have good memories of visiting this site, because it was the 7th and last worldheritage I saw on my trip to Korea. As this one is quite out of the way and was not included in my original travel plans, I am glad that I was able to visit it after all.
Playing Fallout: New Vegas, Part III: The DLC Stories, With a Particular Focus on Lonesome Road
This is the final part of my long ramble about Fallout: New Vegas, in which I take a moment to look briefly at the DLC stories.
There are four DLC stories for Fallout: New Vegas, all of which were built and released over the course of 2011. They take the Courier from the familiar locations and stories of the Mojave and drop them in new conflicts all around the western regions of the former United States. I must confess that I was not exactly fond of many of the DLCs during my first playthrough the conflict in the Mojave was what drew me into New Vegas, and I spent a lot of my time in the DLCs anxiously wanting to get back to it. While I had varying levels of engagement with the various story DLCs, it was the final one, Lonesome Road, that has stuck with me the most. Not only does that DLC return to the central conflict of the main game, it is also a clear expression of Obsidian wrestling with how Fallout has changed, as well as how their own work on New Vegas itself has changed it.
-Around 750,000 years ago: First appearance of human settlements in the Northwest Caucasus.
-More than 100,000 years ago: Paleolithic settlements established in Circassia.
-Neolithic Age: More settlements.
-Around middle of 3rd millennium BC: Appearance of Maikop culture is the Kuban. (First burial mound round in 1897). Appearance of Dolmen culture. Later, Dolmen People push Maikopians eastwards, Maikop culture, with significant infusion from the Dolmen People, engenders the family tree of the Circassians.
-Around 2,500 BC: Haitians found a Bronze Age civilization. They occupy central and southeast Anatolia. Perhaps part of, or kindred to proto-Northwest Caucasians.
-Around 2,000 BC: End of Haitian State. Language disappears.
-About 1,800 BC: Kaskians establish the mighty Kasku State in Anatolia. Some evidence suggests that these formed an important element of Northwest Caucasian lineage.
-By 2nd millennium BC: Dolmen People assimilated by native Northwest Caucasians.
-End of 12th century BC: Maikop culture destroyed by the Peoples of the Sea.
-Early 1st millennium BC: Colchian culture, associated with the Abkhaz, appears in the Caucasus.
-Late Bronze Age-early Iron Age: Cimmerians, later Alans, later Ossetes, displace proto-Circassian tribes in Central Caucasus and found Koban culture.
-8th century BC: Beginning of Iron Age in Northwest Caucasus.
-8th-7th centuries BC: Proto-Maeotians set up rudimentary(basic) state. They mount waves of raids into surrounding lands.
-6th century BC: First mention of Maeotians by ancient writers. They establish a state in steppes North of Black Sea. State survives for almost a millennium. Other kindred peoples begin to establish states: Kerkets, Achaens, Heniokhs, Toretians, etc.
-Late 7th-4th centuries BC:
Maeotian-Scythian period as interaction of Maeot (Caucasian) and Scythian (Iranian) cultures.
-7th-6th centuries BC: Greek colonies established on Eastern Shores of Black Sea. They last for a millennium.
-480 BC: Heterogeneous Bosporan kingdom established. Locals contribute dynasts. Period of prosperity and relative peace.
-By 5th century BC: Sinds, a people kindred to the Maeots, establish Sindika civilization with capital at Gorgippa.
-Almost 2,500 years ago: Sinds and Kerkets mentioned in Orpheuss epic of The Argonauts.
-3rd century BC-3rd century AD:
Maeotian-Sarmatian period as interaction of Maeot and Sarmatian (Iranian) cultures.
-64 BC: Establishment of Roman dominion on Eastern Black Sea coast.
-26 AD: Strabo describes Zyghoys, which name appears for the first time in annals of history and replaces old appellation Kerket.
-2nd century: Sanighs, Abaski and Apsiles replace Heniokhs, their forbears Zyghoys and Achaens replaced by Zikhis, their descendants, in Roman annals.
-3rd-4th centuries: Goths established North of Black Sea. Battle constantly with Circassians.
-370: Gothic kingdom destroyed by Huns
-374: Huns invade Northwest Caucasus. Hinterland Maeotians remove to the safety of mountains, those on the Black Sea shore undisturbed.
-4th century: Byzantine fortresses appear on Black Sea coast and Taman Peninsula. Christianity introduced among some Circassians living in coastal areas.
-455: Vakhtang Gourgaslan conquers Abkhazia, hitherto under Greek domination.
-562: Avars defeat Circassians. Despite constant harassment, Circassia escapes Avar hegemony. Treachery of Khan Bayan immortalized in song.
-Early 8th century: Abkhazia establishes kingdom.
-By 10th century: Circassians combine into a single ethnic and linguistic entity.
-943: Massoudi describes Circassia.
-11th century: Mtislav routs Khazar army in Crimea. Defeats Kassogs (Kabardians) under Idar in 1022. Reidade slain
-12th-13th centuries: Reign of Queen Tamar (1184-1212). Some Circassian tribes fall under Georgian rule, which ends by 1424.
-1237: Kabardians occupy Crimea.
-13th century: Mongols invade Circassia.
-13th-16th centuries: Byelorechenskaya culture and Eastern version. Heyday of Circassian feudalism.
-13th-15th centuries: Genoans establish trading colonies on the coasts of Circassia and Abkhazia, displacing Venetians.
-15th century: Tamerlane invades Caucasus and ends Mongol rule. Kabardians return home.
-1475: Ottoman replace Genoese in Western Caucasus.
-16th-17th centuries: Kabardians establish strong state in central North Caucasus. Inal the Great unites Circassia and Abkhazia in one empire.
-Beginning of 16th century: Cossacks make first appearance in North Caucasus.
-1557: Kabarda voluntarily incorporated into Russia. Start of controversy still alive today.
-1561: Ivan the Terrible weds Princess Maria of Kabarda to cement Union.
-Turn of 18th century: Cossacks firmly established in the Stavropol Krai. Submit to Tsar Peter the Great in 1712.
-1736: War breaks out between Turkey and Russia as a result of the formers intervention in Kabarda.
-September 18th 1739: Treaty of Belgrade acknowledges Kabardas independence.
- 1763: Russians build fortress at Mozdok in Kabarda, Easternmost point of Caucasian Military Line in Circassia. Line completed by of 1880s.
-1764: Kabardians protest foundation of Mozdok. Another delegate sent in 1771. All to avail---the die is cast.
-1768: Start of second Russian-Ottoman War. Turks attack Kuban, Kabardians sack Kizliar.
-1774: Treaty of Kuchuk Kaynarji: Turkey cedes Crimea and Kabarda to Russia.
-1783: Russia annexes Crimea. Some khans find refuge in Circassia.
-1784: Circassians and Nogais attack the Russians.
-1785: Sheikh Mansur appears on the scene. Early successes draw many North Caucasians to join him. Defeated by Russians at Tatartup in Kabarda.
-1787: Start of third Russian-Ottoman War. Russians defeat Circassians under Mansur.
-1791: Anapa taken by Russians. Mansur captured.
-1794: General revolt in Kabardino. Cause: the hated Russian courts.
-1808: Abkhazia annexed by Russia.
-1816: Kabardians finally subdued. Yarmolov appointed Viceroy.
-September 14, 1829: Treaty of Adrianople : Turkey cedes Circassia to Russia. -July 1834: Urquhart's first landing in Circassia. -1836: Circassian declaration of independence published in Portfolio. -1836-1839: Russia runs blockade of Circassias coast.
-Late 1836: HMS Vixen captured by Russians. Urquhart adventure in Circassia come to an end.
-1838: England recognizes Circassias independence.
-February-March 1840: Northwest Caucasian forces capture and destroy four Russian forts. Russia regains initiative soon after.
-1846: Shamil leads a foray into Kabardino, Chased out of Freytag.
-1857: Russians defeated in Crimean War. North Caucasian Issue ignored Treaty of Paris. Circassians resolve to stiffen resistance.
-August 1859: Shamil defeated.
-1859: Circassian War intensifies, Small successive waves of immigrants.
-June 1861: Great and Free Assembly established.
-1862: Circassian delegation dispatched to England to canvas support.
-1864: Circassians finally defeated. Great exodus begins.
-1877: Russian-Ottoman War. Émigré North Caucasian attack Western Circassia, subsequently defeated by Russians.
-1912-3: Kabardian revolt put down harshly.
-1917: North Caucasian Mountain Republic declared.
-1919: North Caucasian Emirate established. Abolished by the Bolsheviks in 1921.
-1921-2: Circassians divided into three areas: Kabardino, Balkaria, and Karachay-Cherkessia Adigea.
-1929: Collectivization and rule of terror begin.
-December 1936: Kabardino-Balkarian Autonomous Oblast elevated to self-governing republic status.
-1936-8: Great Purges of Stalin smite Circassians.
-World War II: Some Circassians deported to Mozdok, seceded to North Ossetia, Shapsughia stripped of its autonomy.
-1957: 400th anniversary of annexation of Kabarda. First contact between Caucasus and Diaspora since end of World War I.
A long period of non-events, a much-needed breathing space.
-1990: Confederation of Mountain Peoples (KGNK) (re)created.
-May 1991: First International Circassian Congress (ICC) held in Nalchik. International Circassian Association (ICA) established.
-August 19, 1991: Russian putsch in Moscow causes Circassian nationalists to consolidate position.
-October 24, 1991: Cherkess Congress declares Republic of Cherkessia.
-December 1991: Collapse of Soviet Union.
-End 1991: Adigea and Karachai-Cherkess AO upgraded to republics within Russian Federation.
-1996: Russian forces defeated in Chechnya. Wave of instability ripples through North Caucasus. Balkars declare independence.
-November 1997: First session of Inter-Parliamentary Council held in Cherkessk. Non-Circassians regard this as first step towards creating Greater Circassia.
-1998: Moscow reorganizes and bolsters its political and military structures in North Caucasus.
-August 1998: Circassians in Kosovo voluntarily transferred to Adigea to escape ethnic war.
-April-May 1999: Presidential elections in Karachai-Cherkessk Republic. Tensions rise between Abaza-Circassians and Karachais.
-Summer 1999: Thousands of Circassians and Abazas protest the election of Semenov in the Karachai-Cherkessk Republic.
-Autumn 1999: Russia invades Chechnya. Unsettling silence from North Caucasian republics.
-March 2000: Circassians and Abazas resume demonstrations after lull. Demand restoration of Cherkess AO.
In the closing years of the War in Heaven, one of the primary factors that led to the Necrons' ascendancy was their ability to finally gain access to the Old Ones' Webway. The C'tan known as Nyadra'zath, the Burning One, had long desired to carry his eldritch fires into that space beyond space, and so showed the Necrons how to breach its extradimensional boundaries.
Through a series of living stone portals known as the Dolmen Gates, the Necrons were finally able to turn the Old Ones' greatest weapon against them, vastly accelerating the ultimate end of the War in Heaven in a Necron triumph.
The portals offered by the Dolmen Gates are neither so stable, nor so controllable as the naturally occurring entrances to the Webway scattered across the galaxy currently controlled by the Aeldari and their Drukhari cousins.
Indeed, in some curious fashion, the Webway can detect when its environs have been breached by a Dolmen Gate and its arcane mechanisms swiftly attempt to seal off the infected spur from the rest of the Labyrinthine Dimension until the danger to its integrity has passed. Thus, Necrons entering the Webway must reach their intended destination through its shifting extra-dimensional corridors quickly, lest the network itself bring about their destruction.
Of course, in the present age, aeons have passed since the Necrons used the Dolmen Gates to assault their archenemies. The Old Ones are gone, and the Webway itself has become a tangled and broken labyrinth. Many Dolmen Gates were lost or abandoned during the time of the Necrons' Great Sleep, and many more were destroyed by the Aeldari, the Old Ones' successors as the guardians of the Webway.
Those that remain grant access to but a small portion of the immense maze that is the Webway, much of that voluntarily sealed off by the Aeldari to prevent further contamination. Yet the Webway is immeasurably vast, and even these sundered skeins allow the Necrons a mode of travel that far outpaces those of the younger races.
It is well that this is so. As a species bereft of psykers as a result of the loss of their souls during the biotransference process, the Necrons are also incapable of Warp travel, and without access to the Webway, they would be forced to rely once more on slow-voyaging stasis-ships, dooming them to interstellar isolation.
Whilst the simple dolmen as a rule only had one capstone (but could have two), the rectangular dolmen, which differs primarily in the orientation of its support stones (standing) from the simple dolmen (lying), usually had two capstones (but also can have just one). Once a third capstone is added, it is called a great dolmen (Großdolmen) in Germany. A sub-grouping of this type of dolmen is based on the ever-present entranceway, which, for example, could be designed with a roof-height half stone or single-angle (einwinkelnd) support stones.
Within long mounds, rectangular dolmens are usually oriented at right angles to the axis of the enclosure. The proportion of rectangular dolmens in round (including oval) mounds, compared with simple dolmens, increases in Schleswig-Holstein from 20% to at least 27%. The proportion of mounds is probably higher, because experience has shown that circular mounds leave fewer traces than stone enclosures. In Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, however only two of the 20 "extended dolmens" surveyed by E. Schuldt were covered by round mounds.
The great dolmen or grand dolmen  (German: Großdolmen , Danish: Stordysse ) is a type of megalithic site of the Funnelbeaker culture (TBK) that occurs in Nordic megalith architecture, primarily in the east of what is now German Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, and which has two different types of entrance. Neolithic monuments are features of the culture and ideology of Neolithic communities. Their evolution and function act as indicators of social development.  The type of site, called Stordysse in Danish, does not follow the criteria listed below. In Germany, dolmens with three or more capstones are described as great dolmens and are divided into:
- Great dolmens with an antechamber (Vorraum)
- Great dolmens with a porch (Windfang)
The porch dolmen is mainly found on the island of Rügen and on the mainland opposite the island. The antechamber dolmen is found southeast of that, between Demmin and the island of Usedom. Several variant, but very rare examples recall the extended or polygonal dolmen types. In Mecklenburg there are 146 great dolmens, of which Ewald Schuldt has investigated 44. There are also two great dolmens in Schleswig-Holstein (Wees, Flensburg county and in Nebel auf Amrum), several in western Lower Saxony, but quite a few in Saxony-Anhalt (e.g. Lüdelsen 3).
Since the width of northern megalith sites is limited due to the source material used, the main design aim of their longitudinal extension was an effort to increase the size of the chambers. Great dolmens reach an average interior size of 14 cubic metres, a scale only otherwise matched by that of the gallery and passage grave. Great dolmens have up to five capstones lying on eight to twelve supporting stones. Several great dolmens were extended using wide piers (Zwischenmauerwerk), on which, in certain cases, even capstones may have been placed.
Like passage graves, great dolmens are a type of layout, in which the centre capstones were sometimes placed in a bay configuration (Jochbauweise, see picture). Whilst, initially, the roof was only built in such a way that its structural stability was based on a three-point support, in the later bay designs, a capstone could be supported on just two uprights (forming a single bay), the three stones being built as one unit, like a trilithon.
Romans and Vikings and Bluetooth — oh my!
By 200 A.D., Danish culture had spread to the point where there were essentially fixed and steady trade routes with the Romans. They traded goods with the Romans ranging from slaves to furs to animal skins to amber in exchange for luxury items from across the farthest reaches of the Roman empire.
As early as 100 to 400 A.D., there is evidence that household utensils, intricate weapons and numerous other artifacts from the Roman Iron Age were commonly in use in Denmark culture.
The evidence from Danish history also shows that around this time, the complexity of Denmark culture was advancing steadily. A number of archaeological finds seem to indicate that a cultural elite ruled over vast swathes of land, presaging later society in Denmark history with its chieftains and kings.
Perhaps more importantly, this is the period where scholars find that Denmark culture took an important leap forward with the emergence of runes, an early form of writing common to many Scandinavian cultures, but especially prominent in Denmark history.
Around 900 A.D., a related momentous event took place in Denmark history with the rise of King Harald Bluetooth, also known as Harald I. His runic signature is one that is immediately recognised around the world to this day as the symbol we use for Bluetooth devices connected with our computers and phones.
The original Bluetooth is believed to have subdued all of Denmark, and indeed his runic commemoration of that epic event in Denmark history and culture is the first time scholars have found written evidence of the word “Denmark” being used, although they believe it was likely spoken before that time.
But we know why you’re really here — Vikings! Everyone’s favourite bad boys and girls of the early middle ages, and a group that was highly influential in shaping centuries of Danish history and culture.
Even with all of their traveling, global contact with a variety of civilisations, and access to luxury items – not to mention the emergence of writing and a more stable, cohesive Danish culture — the early Danes apparently wanted more.
What we do know is that early Denmark culture was built around boats and boat-building, and they weren’t afraid to use those skills to their distinct advantage.
Around 800 A.D., the rise of the Vikings signalled a new epoch in the history of Denmark as Danes truly took their place at the forefront of world powers to be feared.
It is a fact of Denmark history and culture that the Vikings who originated in Denmark were known as some of the most ruthless and bloodthirsty of the lot, gaining a reputation for inflicting particularly brutal treatment on people they encountered in churches and monasteries on their legendary overseas raids.
The Vikings famously raided England, even heading as far north as the Orkney Islands in Scotland.
And while some Vikings chose to settle in this new land—after all the pillaging was done, of course—for many of these early actors in Danish history and culture, raiding was not only an economic godsend, it was a way of life intrinsic to Denmark culture.
By the 10 th century, the Viking lifestyle had spread to fully encompass Danish culture as well as that of Denmark’s Scandinavian neighbours, Sweden and Norway, and later Iceland as well.
As time went on, various chieftains in each of these countries consolidated their power separately, and we see the beginnings of a true kingdom emerging in Denmark history, led by our well-connected friend, Harald Bluetooth, who ruled for 35 years.
Harald’s son Sweyn Forkbeard spread Danish culture even further than his famous father, conquering much of England and establishing for a brief time a unique moment in Denmark history: an Anglo-Danish kingdom which eventually saw Harald’s grandson Canute briefly sitting on the throne of England.
A dolmen is a type of single-chamber megalithic tomb, usually consisting of two or more vertical megaliths supporting a large flat horizontal capstone or "table". Most date from the early Neolithic and were sometimes covered with earth or smaller stones to form a tumulus. Small pad-stones may be wedged between the cap and supporting stones to achieve a level appearance. In many instances, the covering has weathered away, leaving only the stone "skeleton" of the mound intact.
A megalith is a large pre-historic stone that has been used to construct a structure or monument, either alone or together with other stones. There are over 35,000 in Europe alone, ranging from Sweden to the Mediterranean sea.
The Oldendorfer Totenstatt is a group of six burial mounds and megalith sites in Oldendorf north of Amelinghausen in the valley of the River Luhe in Lüneburg district in the German state of Lower Saxony. It consists of dolmens and tumuli.
The Lancken-Granitz dolmens are a group of seven megalith tombs in the Lancken-Granitz municipality on Rügen, northern Germany. Erected during the middle Neolithic, when they were used by the Funnelbeaker culture, at least some were in use until the early Bronze Age. Three of them are encircled by solitary rocks forming either rectangles or a stone circle, one has a solitary "guardian stone" on its eastern side.
In the area of present-day Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany, up to 5,000 megalith tombs were erected as burial sites by people of the Neolithic Funnelbeaker (TRB) culture. More than 1,000 of them are preserved today and protected by law. Though varying in style and age, megalith structures are common in Western Europe, with those in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern belonging to the youngest and easternmost—further east, in the modern West Pomeranian Voivodeship of Poland, monuments erected by the TRB people did not include lithic structures, while they do in the south (Brandenburg), west and north (Denmark).
Nobbin is a village in the municipality of Putgarten on the Wittow peninsula on the German Baltic Sea island of Rügen. The village, comprising just a few houses, lies between the road from Altenkirchen to Arkona and the bay of Tromper Wiek. As a result of its attractive location between Cape Arkona and the broad, over 10 km long beach of the Schaabe, the village is dominated by tourism.
The Goldbusch is a great dolmen, a type prehistoric grave site, that lies between Altensien and Moritzdorf on the German Baltic Sea island of Rügen. The megalithic tomb with Sprockhoff No. 508 was built between 3500 and 2800 B. C. in the New Stone Age as a megalithic site of the Funnelbeaker culture (TBK).
The Great dolmen of Dwasieden, is a great dolmen in the borough of Sassnitz, on the Jasmund peninsula of Germany's largest island, Rügen. It was excavated in 1970 by Ewald Schuldt and is designated a Sprockhoff No. 472. The megalithic site of the Funnelbeaker culture (TBK) was constructed between 3500 and 2800 BC.
The great dolmen or grand dolmen is a type of megalithic site of the Funnelbeaker culture (TBK) that occurs in Nordic megalith architecture, primarily in the east of what is now German Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, and which has two different types of entrance. Neolithic monuments are features of the culture and ideology of Neolithic communities. Their evolution and function act as indicators of social development. The type of site, called Stordysse in Danish, does not follow the criteria listed below. In Germany, dolmens with three or more capstones are described as great dolmens and are divided into:
Nordic megalith architecture is an ancient architectural style found in Northern Europe, especially Scandinavia and North Germany, that involves large slabs of stone arranged to form a structure. It emerged in northern Europe, predominantly between 3500 and 2800 BC. It was primarily a product of the Funnelbeaker culture. Between 1964 and 1974, Ewald Schuldt in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania excavated over 100 sites of different types: simple dolmens, extended dolmens, passage graves, great dolmens, unchambered long barrows, and stone cists. In addition, there are polygonal dolmens and types that emerged later, for example, the Grabkiste and Röse. This nomenclature, which specifically derives from the German, is not used in Scandinavia where these sites are categorised by other, more general, terms, as dolmens, passage graves and stone cists . Neolithic monuments are a feature of the culture and ideology of Neolithic communities. Their appearance and function serves as an indicator of their social development.
Guardian stones are standing stones, always occurring in pairs, at the corners of rectangular and trapezoidally-arranged stone enclosures (hunebeds) around a dolmen. They are found especially in Scandinavia, in the German states of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Lower Saxony (Salongrab), Saxony-Anhalt and occasionally in Holstein. They are strikingly large stone blocks that form the corner post of enclosures or project above them like antae and lend the stone enclosures a monumental appearance.
The simple dolmen or primeval dolmen is an early form of dolmen or megalithic tomb that occurs especially in Northern Europe. The term was defined by archaeologist, Ernst Sprockhoff, and utilised by Ewald Schuldt in publicising his excavation of 106 megalithic sites in the north German state of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern. The simple dolmen emerged in the early days of the development of megalithic monuments of the Funnelbeaker culture (TBK) and around 3,500 BC they appeared across almost the entire region covered by the stone cult structures of Nordic megalith architecture, but not in the Netherlands, in Lower Saxony west of the River Weser nor east of the River Oder and only once in Sweden.
The polygonal dolmen is a visually very attractive megalithic architectural structure and is therefore often depicted as the archetypal dolmen. It is encountered especially frequently in the north of the Danish island of Zealand, in the Swedish province of Bohuslän and on the Cimbrian Peninsula, for example, at Troldkirken in Jutland. In Schleswig-Holstein, there are 11 examples. In Lower Saxony, Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania and Saxony-Anhalt (Lüdelsen) they appear are only occasionally.
The unchambered long barrowearthen long barrow, non-megalithic long barrow or non-megalithic mound, is a type of long barrow found across the British Isles, in a belt of land in Brittany, and in northern Europe as far east as the River Vistula. The term "unchambered" means that there is no stone chamber within the stone enclosure. In Great Britain they are often known as non-megalithic long barrows or unchambered long cairns.
A megalithic entrance is an architectonic feature that enables access to a megalithic tomb or structure. The design of the entrance has to seal the access to the cultic structure in such a way that it is possible to gain access to the interior again, even after a long time, in order to perform rituals. To that end, the practitioners of Nordic megalith architecture, the Wartberg culture and Horgen culture, used several variants, that are also found in other megalithic regions in identical or slightly modified form.
The Harhoog is a dolmen, a rectangular megalithic tomb from the Funnelbeaker culture, located near Keitum on the island of Sylt in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany. Discovered in 1925, it was moved to the present site in 1954 when a new airport was developed.
The various types of megalithic monuments in northeastern Germany were last compiled by Ewald Schuldt in the course of a project to excavate megalithic tombs from the Neolithic Era, which was conducted between 1964 and 1972 in the area of the northern districts of East Germany. His aim was to provide a "classification and naming of the objects present in this field of research". In doing so it utilised a classification by Ernst Sprockhoff, which in turn was based on an older Danish model.
A threshold stone or sill stone is a rectangularly dressed stone slab that forms part of the entrance of megalithic tombs of the Funnelbeaker culture, normally those with a passage. The red sandstone slab, up to 0.1 metres thick, was buried in the ground to a depth of 0.2 metres at the entrance to the chamber. Cultural sites of other types, such as Domus de Janas, also have a clear partition between the passage and the ante-chamber or main chamber.
Pawton Quoit is a prehistoric portal dolmen, which dates to the Early and Middle Neolithic period in England. The burial monument near Haycrock Farm, which is located 4.66 km south of St Breock, in Cornwall, England.
Sømarkedyssen is a neolithic megalithic tomb located near Sømarke on the Danish island of Møn