USS Klondike AD-22 - History

USS Klondike AD-22 - History

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The mining district south of the Klondike River in Yugon Territory, Canada, which was the scene of the gold rush of 1897.

(AD-22: dp. 8,165; 1. 492'; b. 69'8"; dr. 27'3"; s. 18.4 k.; cpl. 826; a. 15", 4 3", 4 40mm., 20 20mm.; cl. Klondike)

Klondike (AD-22) was launched 12 August 1944 by Todd Shipbuilding Corp., San Pedro, Calif.; sponsored by Mrs. Dorothy J. Diirck; and commissioned at San Pedro 30 July 1945, Comdr. M. E. Hatch in command.

After shakedown, Klondike loaded hundreds of tons of spares and stores in preparation for the important task of supplying and maintaining the speedy, hardhitting destroyers. Designed as a "mother ship" for the "greyhounds of the fleet," she departed San Pedro 19 October for Pearl Harbor, arriving the 25th. Recalled to the West Coast, she sailed from Pearl 7 November with 500 homebound veterans embarked and arrived San Diego 15 November. On 21 November she became the flagship for Commander, San Diego Group, 19th Fleet; and commenced inactiviation operations on ships scheduled for the Pacific Reserve Fleet. Placed on an inactive status (in commission, in reserve) 30 November 1946, Klondike was placed in service in late summer, 1948. She served as flagship until 11 May 1955.

Klondike recommissioned 15 July 1959 at Long Beach, Comdr. F. Mullins, Jr., in command. Returning to San Diego 4 December, she provided repair facilities as a unit of SerRon 1. On 20 February 19GO she was reclassified as repair ship AR-22 and she repaired vessels at San Diego, Long Beach, and San Francisco until 15 July 1961. Klondike then departed San Diego for duty in the Far East. Assigned to SerRon 3, she arrived Yokosuka, Japan 4 August; and until 23 February 1962 she provided repair facilities at Sasebo and Iwakuni, Japan, and Subic Bay PI for the peace-keeping ships of the mighty 7th Fleet. Returning to the West Coast 11 March, she resumed her duty out of San Diego.

Departing San Diego 17 July 1963, Klondike steamed via Pearl Harbor for the Western Pacific. While en route to Sasebo, she offered assistance 6 through 9 August to distressed Greek freighter Cryssism during a raging typhoon. Reaching Sasebo 11 August, she proceeded to Subic Bay 15 August for repair ship station duty. Klondike operated in the Far Fast until 30 November; then she returned to the United 'States, arriving San Diego 14 December. During the next year she continued servicing ships while operating out of San Diego and San Francisco. Klondike continued to repair the ships of the Pacific Fleet into mid-1967. Her last Far Eastern deployment began 25 February 1966 when she departed San Diego. She remained in the Orient 'repairing the ships of the mighty 7th Fleet until returning to Pearl Harbor 27 October. The remainder of the year was devoted to preparing for future action in 1967.


This section lists the names and designations that the ship had during its lifetime. The list is in chronological order.

    Klondike Class Destroyer Tender
    Kel Laid December 6 1943 - Launched August 12 1944

Struck from Naval Register March 6 1972
Sold May 8 1975

Naval Covers

This section lists active links to the pages displaying covers associated with the ship. There should be a separate set of pages for each name of the ship (for example, Bushnell AG-32 / Sumner AGS-5 are different names for the same ship so there should be one set of pages for Bushnell and one set for Sumner). Covers should be presented in chronological order (or as best as can be determined).

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A postmark should not be included unless accompanied by a close-up image and/or an image of a cover showing that postmark. Date ranges MUST be based ONLY ON COVERS IN THE MUSEUM and are expected to change as more covers are added.
>>> If you have a better example for any of the postmarks, please feel free to replace the existing example.



After shakedown, Klondike loaded hundreds of tons of spares and stores in preparation for the task of supplying and maintaining destroyers. She departed San Pedro on 19 October for Pearl Harbor, Hawaii arriving the 25th. Recalled to the West Coast, she sailed from Pearl on 7 November with 500 home-bound veterans embarked and arrived in San Diego on 15 November. On 21 November she became the flagship for Commander, San Diego Group, 19th Fleet and commenced inactivation operations on ships scheduled for the Pacific Reserve Fleet. Placed on an inactive status (in commission, in reserve) on 30 November 1946, Klondike was placed in service in late September 1948. She served as flagship of the San Diego Group, Pacific Reserve Fleet until 11 May 1955.


Klondike recommissioned 15 July 1959 at Long Beach, California with Commander Fred Ferguson Mullins, Jr. in command. Returning to San Diego on 4 December, she provided repair facilities as a unit of ServRon 1. On 20 February 1960 she was re-classified as repair ship USS Klondike (AR-22) and she repaired vessels at San Diego, Long Beach, and San Francisco until 15 July 1961. Klondike then departed San Diego for duty in the Far East. Assigned to ServRon 3, she arrived at Yokosuka, Japan on 4 August and until 23 February 1962 she provided repair facilities at Sasebo and Iwakuni, Japan and Subic Bay, Philippines for the peace-keeping ships of the 7th Fleet. Returning to the West Coast on 11 March, she resumed her duty out of San Diego.

Departing San Diego on 17 July 1963, Klondike steamed via Pearl Harbor for the Western Pacific. While en route to Sasebo, she offered assistance 6 through 9 August 1963 to a distressed Greek freighter Cryssism during a raging typhoon. Reaching Sasebo on 11 August, she proceeded to Subic Bay 15 August for repair ship station duty. Klondike operated in the Far East until 30 November, then she returned to the United States, arriving San Diego on 14 December 1963. During the next year she continued servicing ships while operating out of San Diego.

During the Vietnam War Klondike participated in the Tet Counteroffensive from 31 March 1969 to 24 April 1969. She repaired a river supply ship that collided with a destroyer and was struck in her aft section by enemy fire from river boats. [1] For her service in Vietnam, the Klondike was awarded the Vietnam Service Medal with one Bronze Star for the Tet Counteroffensive and the Republic of Vietnam Campaign Medal. [2]

Klondike was struck from the Naval Register on 15 September 1974, after which time custody was transferred to the Maritime Administration for disposal. Klondike was sold by MARAD on 8 May 1975, fate unknown.

Category: USS Klondike (AD-22), United States Navy

USS Klondike (AD-22) was one of four destroyer tenders built at the tail end of World War II for the United States Navy. The lead ship in her class, she was named for the Klondike River in the Yukon Territory, Canada, which was the scene of the gold rush of 1897. The Klondike class destroyer tenders were a Navy adaptation of the Maritime Commission's C3 fast cargo ship design.

  • Vietnam Service Medal with one Bronze Star for the Tet Counteroffensive
  • Republic of Vietnam Campaign Medal.

This category is managed by the Military and War Project in association with the Categorization Project. For assistance with this or related categories ask in G2G making sure to tag your question with both categorization and Military_and_War .

This page was last modified 23:46, 12 May 2020. This page has been accessed 123 times.


USS Klondike AD-22 - History

A frenzied boomtown during the Klondike Gold Rush of 1897-98, today Dyea is all but a ghost town. Step off the beaten path and get to know modern and historic Dyea.

A visit to Dyea provides a great opportunity to experience the nature and wildlife of Southeast Alaska, but this scenic area in the Taiya River Valley is a far cry from what Dyea was like at the turn of the 20th century. Dyea became a boomtown during the Klondike Gold Rush because it was the start of the famous Chilkoot Trail. Thousands of people poured through Dyea on their way to the gold fields.

Visiting Dyea Today
Today the original townsite is recognized as a National Historic Landmark and is managed, along with the Chilkoot Trail, as a unit within Klondike Gold Rush National Historical Park. Take the self guided tour of the townsite to learn more about the history, flora and fauna of the area, or spend a night or two at the National Park Service campground.

An Important Trade Route

Exactly when Dyea was established is uncertain. Oral history accounts indicate that at one time it was a small permanent village. However, in the decades before the gold rush Dyea was a seasonal fishing camp and staging area for trade trips between the coast and the interior. In fact, the name Dayéi means “to pack.” The Chilkoot pass is one of only three passes that can be used all winter in the northern Lynn Canal area.

The Chilkat Tlingit people from Klukwan used this cooridor to trade with the interior First Nations people. It was their main trade route to the interior and they did not permit others to use the pass. They provided goods from the interior to Russian, Boston, and Hudson's Bay trading companies. Their control reached beyond Dyea, even burning Fort Selkirk in the Yukon in 1852 when the Hudson's Bay Company attempted to trade directly with the interior First Nations people.

In 1879, U.S. Navy Commander L.A. Beardsley reached an agreement with the Chilkat Tlingits whereby miners would be permitted to reach the Yukon via the passes but would not interfere with their regular trade. Tlingit guides accompanied the first party over in May 1880, and transported the miners' gear for a fee. This trip set the foundation for the Tlingit packing business, which thrived during the gold rush.

The Healy & Wilson trading post after the gold rush began.

National Archives, BR-1-A-10C

Healy & Wilson Trading Post

National Park Service, Klondike Gold Rush National Historical Park, George & Edna Rapuzzi Collection, KLGO 55749b. Gift of the Rasmuson Foundation.

National Archives, BR-1-A-10B

Boomtown Dyea

Dyea's real boom began in the fall of 1897. When word of the wealth of the Klondike strike splashed onto the world's newspapers in mid‑July 1897, traffic up the Inside Passage grew to a frenzied pace. For months, jammed boatloads of prospectors disembarked in Dyea and streamed north over the Chilkoot Pass. Few people remained in the area very long. As late as September 1897, Dyea was still nothing more than the Healy & Wilson trading post, a few saloons, the Tlingit encampment, and a motley assemblage of tents. In October, speculators mapped out a townsite, but Dyea's biggest growth did not begin until the Yukon River system started to freeze up and the winter storms slowed traffic on the Chilkoot Trail. Without the ability to dash up the trails, people began spending more time in Dyea and it became more town-like.

Dyea's approximate layout during the height of the gold rush overlaid with the modern location of the river. A Busy Business District
During the winter of 1897-1898, Dyea was large in size and multifaceted in function. The downtown area was about five blocks wide and eight blocks long. At the height of its prosperity, the town boasted over 150 businesses, with the large majority of them being restaurants, hotels, supply houses, and saloons.

Manufacturing was limited to two breweries. Attorneys, bankers, freighting companies, photographers, steamship and real estate agents were also plentiful. To care for your health, there were drug stores, doctors, a dentist, two hospitals, and three undertakers. Although the town doesn’t appear to have had any type of formal government, a Chamber of Commerce developed as did a volunteer fire department (but without a building) and a school that ran from May 1898 – June 1900.

To connect with the outside world, the town had two newspapers (the Dyea Trail and the Dyea Press) and two telephone companies, one that ran its line up the Chilkoot Trail to Bennett and the other that ran its line to Skagway. There were also two wharfs, many warehouses and freight sorting areas, and a sawmill. The town also had one church, of the Methodist-Episcopalian denomination.

Camp Dyea
Immediately north of downtown was Camp Dyea. U.S. Army troops first arrived here about March 1, 1898, and soon their tents were scattered across a large field south of the Healy & Wilson trading post. When the troops arrived in Dyea, they paid little attention to the site where they established their camp. But drainage problems existed at the site, the nearest potable water was over a half‑mile away, and the camp was not directly accessible by water. Therefore, the troops sought out another location. In October 1898 they moved three miles south along the west side of Taiya Inlet. There the army secured the Dyea‑Klondike Transportation Company dock and buildings to use.

North of Town
North of the downtown area River Street wound along the banks of the Taiya River up to the Healy & Wilson store, the mid-part of town. Beyond that, the traveler on River Street encountered the Tlingit Village, and other boomtown stores scattered along the road. Near the northern end of town, approximately two miles from the high tide line another business center catered to southbound traffic. Dyea officially ended at the Kinney Bridge.

Dyea's Downfall

Dyea competed on fairly even terms with Skagway through the winter of 1897‑1898, but in the spring, Dyea began to lose its competitive edge. On April 3, 1898, there was a massive snow slide, known as the "Palm Sunday Avalanche," on the Chilkoot Trail. This disaster happened north of Sheep Camp and killed over 70 people. This brought worldwide negative publicity and some travelers steered away from Dyea. The opening of the Yukon River brought a mass exodus from the town as the stampeders left for Dawson.

The construction of the White Pass & Yukon Route railroad, which began in Skagway in May 1898, funneled most new stampeders to Skagway. Freight destined for the tramways of the Chilkoot Railroad & Transport Company continued to pour through Dyea, but few passengers filed into town. Finally, the replacement of the Klondike Gold Rush with the Spanish-American war in the nation’s headlines, spelled Dyea’s doom.

Beginning with the fall of 1898, Dyea began to fade away. In late 1898, the onslaught of winter snows slowed and then halted tramway operations. By the spring of 1899, portions of the Long Wharf were no longer usable. In late July 1899 a forest fire burned the U.S. Army camp at the Dyea-Klondike Transportation Company. The troops permanently moved to Skagway. By the summer of 1899, the White Pass & Yukon Route railroad purchased the aerial tramways over the Chilkoot Trail. Not wanting the competition for their railroad, tramway operations came to a halt. Most of the tramway apparatus was removed in early 1900 and the Chilkoot Trail ceased being a transportation corridor after hundreds of years. Without a trail leading north Dyea’s reason for existence vanished.

After 1900, the population of Dyea continued to slump. Although about 250 people lived there in March 1900, an informal tally in the spring of 1901 showed only 71 with any interest in the town. Those who remained hoped to benefit from various railroad or townsite schemes that were being promoted at the time, but when the schemes failed to bear fruit the inhabitants drifted away. The post office closed in June 1902, and by 1903 less than a half‑dozen people occupied the remains of the old townsite.

Ad for the Pullen House highlighting their local dairy products

After the Gold Rush

Remains of Dyea buildings along the Taiya River in 1922.

National Park Service, Klondike Gold Rush National Historical Park, George & Edna Rapuzzi Collection, KLGO 59771a. Gift of the Rasmuson Foundation.

Meanwhile, the remains of the old townsite slowly disappeared. A few of the owners dismantled their buildings and took them elsewhere. Emil Klatt, who farmed in the valley for years after the gold rush, burned or disassembled many of the old buildings gaining some money by selling off lumber and hardware and expanding his farm. Fires destroyed some buildings including the landmark Healy & Wilson trading post in 1921 and vandalism ruined a few others. Time and the elements wore down many of the other old buildings and a shift in the path of the Taiya River undermined over half of the downtown area in the 1920s and 1930s. Some of the buildings from the town remained until after World War II but more floods in the mid‑1940s and early 1950s destroyed most structures which were left standing.

It appears that the only buildings for which any substantial evidence is left were re‑used by farmers or other homesteaders after the gold rush. Many ruins still remain at the old townsite but identification of the ruins is difficult and many questions still remain. The town is now a major archeological site. In February 1978, the National Park Service bought much of the old townsite of Dyea.

National Park Service, Klondike Gold Rush National Historical Park, George and Edna Rapuzzi Collection, KLGO 59777g. Gift of the Rasmuson Foundation.

Whatever happened to the ‘ton of gold’ ship that kickstarted the Klondike Gold Rush?

Part of a continuing weekly series on local history by local historian David Reamer. Have a question about Anchorage history or an idea for a future article? Go to the form at the bottom of this story.

A cheering throng of thousands met the SS Portland as it pulled up to Seattle’s Schwabacher Dock on July 17, 1897. The spectators chanted, over and over, to see the gold. The perhaps slightly bewildered but good-humored miners on board the steamer waved in return. Today, a plaque at the Seattle Waterfront Park notes the location of the festivities.

The Seattle Post-Intelligencer ran an extra edition that day with the details. The newspaper declared, “This morning the steamship Portland, from St. Michaels for Seattle, passed up Sound with more than a ton of solid gold on board.” Of the 68 passengers, “hardly a man has less than $7,000 and one or two have more than $100,000 in yellow nuggets.”

While the fevered coverage did its part to sell newspapers, the Post-Intelligencer undersold the cargo. Once weighed, there were two tons of the precious metal. Still, the Portland was thereafter known as the “ton of gold” ship. And the quicksilver genius of that simple phrase helped sell a nation on the idea that gold fever might indeed be a rational, practical path to a fortune.

The gold in question came from the Klondike region of the Yukon in northwestern Canada, and the famous Klondike Gold Rush followed in the wake of the Portland’s celebrity. But what happened to the ship that started it all?

The Portland had an unsavory history before the gold rush. The 1,420 ton, 192-foot steamer first launched out of Bath, Maine, as the SS Haytian Republic in 1885. “Haytian” is an archaic spelling of “Haitian,” as in the demonym for the nation of Haiti. For the next three years, it primarily ran goods between the United States and the Caribbean. Yet, not all the goods carried by the steamer were, strictly speaking, legal. By late 1888, it was carrying soldiers, guns and ammunition for the rebel Haitian General, and future president, Florvil Hyppolite.

On October 22, 1888, the Haitian man-o-war Dessalines seized the American-flagged Haytian Republic after it entered a closed port with a cargo of armed troops. This confrontation ignited a minor diplomatic incident. As negotiations between the countries failed to progress, the Americans dispatched warships to more strenuously project their perspective. And in late December, the Haitian government relinquished the steamer. The American ships celebrated the transfer with a 21-gun salute.

In 1890, the ship was sold and sailed around Cape Horn with the seemingly legitimate intent to service Alaska canneries. However, the steamer proved too large for those duties and laid dormant for almost two years, then began hauling freight and passengers along the West Coast, including regular stops at San Francisco, Portland, Tacoma, Seattle, and Vancouver.

The Haytian Republic soon earned a notorious reputation — again — in the Pacific Northwest. By the time American customs officials seized the vessel in May 1893, it had already been detained repeatedly for smuggling in at least two states and British Columbia. The ship was a cog in a multinational opium ring. The ringleaders revealed their operations to those in the know with coded manifest descriptions carried by newspapers. “Tons” translated to pounds, and “coal” meant opium. So, for example, when the Haytian Republic was announced as delivering 1,200 tons of coal to Portland in August 1892, it may have instead delivered 1,200 pounds of opium.

For most Americans, its most scandalous cargo was not narcotics but Chinese laborers. The Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 prohibited Chinese immigration and was followed by a series of localized ethnic cleansings across America, including the 1886 expulsion of Chinese nationals from Juneau.

Following the May 1893 seizure, authorities released the boat on bond back to ownership. It was seized again that summer in the Columbia River with 172 Chinese laborers aboard. After a series of back of forth allegations, U.S. Marshals ordered a sale. The new owners wisely took the opportunity to rechristen the steamer as the SS Portland, and by 1897, it was one of roughly two dozen ships working the Alaska coast.

That would have been the end of the Portland’s notoriety if not for the Aug. 16, 1896, discovery of gold on a Klondike River tributary. It wasn’t the only ship carrying the happy news south. The SS Excelsior reached San Francisco with a load of successful prospectors and gold two days before the Portland landed at Seattle. Yet the Portland received greater credit for furthering the gold fever that would sweep the nation.

News of the Portland and its cargo arrived in Seattle well in advance of the ship itself. A Post-Intelligencer reporter, eager for the scoop, sailed out and met the Portland. He had time to board, interview the captain and some of the miners, transfer back to a tug, and return to Seattle two hours before the steamer arrived.

At the Seattle dock, one of the passengers tried to lift his leather sack of gold off the deck. The handle snapped in his hand. Another prospector, Joseph Cazla, with $30,000 worth of gold on him, claimed he had spent more than that on drinks in Dawson City. Clarence Berry, who returned with more than $100,000 in gold nuggets, told the Post-Intelligencer, “grit, perseverance and luck will probably reward a hard worker (in the Klondike) with a comfortable income for life.”

None of the fortunate prospectors aboard the Portland that June day attempted to hide their newfound wealth. If anything, they bragged all the more about untapped riches left behind.

This attitude reflected the nature of the Klondike mining community at the time. Economist Douglas Allen found that information, even the location of profitable strikes, was freely shared. For that small, isolated population, a wide-ranging system of cooperation was mutually beneficial and simple to maintain. That system, of course, collapsed under the weight of thousands of greenhorn prospectors.

As the news of the Portland spread, the nation was inspired. Mining equipment, suddenly advertised on the front pages of local newspapers, quickly sold out in Seattle. Workers abandoned shops. Within a day, the news had reached the East Coast, and thousands of New Yorkers reportedly tried to buy tickets to Seattle. Within 10 days of the Portland’s arrival, more than a thousand individuals dreaming of gold had departed from Seattle, bound for the Klondike.

Seattle, conveniently located, became the Lower 48 launching point for the rush. Destinations in Alaska, the gateway into the Klondike, exploded into dangerous boomtowns. At the head of the White Pass Trail into Canada, Skagway essentially ballooned from a family homestead into a bustling town of roughly 10,000 transient residents. Nearby Dyea, with its Chilkoot Pass access, similarly expanded into prominence. In Canada, Dawson City went from 500 residents to around 30,000.

In all, perhaps as many as 100,000 prospectors participated in the Klondike Gold Rush. The average member of the stampede traveled around 2,500 miles.

Only about half of those 100,000 prospectors reached the goldfields. The trek was expensive, arduous, and dangerous. In addition to the difficulties of terrain and climate, criminals preyed on the naïve and unprotected. Worst of all, those who reached the Klondike soon learned that the profitable sites had already been claimed. There was little new money to be made except by selling goods and services to the new arrivals. By 1898, there was a corresponding mass outmigration of frequently broke former prospectors.

Some of the Klondike fortune seekers tried their luck at other strikes. A.C. Craig (1862-1928) was typical of this lot. He left a comfortable life in Chicago for the Yukon, which he abandoned in turn for Nome. The chase for gold then took him to Chisana before he washed up in Anchorage and became a member of its first city council.

Most of the prospectors returned to the Lower 48. Skagway and Dawson City rapidly declined, and Dyea ceased to exist altogether.

The Portland continued to service Southeast Alaska after the waning of the Klondike Gold Rush. On Nov. 12, 1910, it was bringing supplies to Katalla, Alaska’s first oil field, when it struck an uncharted rock. The captain drove the ship onto the sand, beaching preferable to sinking. The 83 total crew and passengers, plus the ship cats, were recovered unharmed. As the ship was a total loss, the crew stripped it as best they could and abandoned the wreck. The owners received $41,500, roughly $1.2 million in 2021 dollars, from the insurance company. Thirteen years after its most celebrated delivery, the Portland was still famous enough that newspapers around the country reported its demise.

By 1916, the battered hulk of the Portland was a prime target for scavengers. With the onset of war in Europe, metal prices had more than doubled, even in areas far removed from the conflict, like Alaska. Junkers stripped bolts, fasteners, and anything else made of brass or copper. Officially, the scavengers were supposed to obtain permission from the ship owners. In reality, abandoned ships like the Portland were considered fair game for whoever was willing to make the effort.

Time and sand eventually covered the Portland until upheaval from the 1964 Great Alaska Earthquake pushed it back to the surface. It was rediscovered in 2004. The history, Seattle memorial, and the dissipating ruins at Katalla are all that’s left of a ship with a storied past and its lasting influence on the region.

Allen, Douglas W. “Information Sharing During the Klondike Gold Rush.” Journal of Economic History 67, no. 4 (2007): 944-967.

“For Past Offenses.” Seattle Post-Intelligencer, May 30, 1893, 2.

“Hayti Forced to Yield.” New York Times, December 24, 1888, 1.

“Hulk of Gold Ship Portland is Dismantled.” Anchorage Daily Times, October 14, 1916, 9.

“Latest News from the Klondike.” Seattle Post-Intelligencer, Klondike Edition, July 17, 1897, 1.

“A Month’s Shipping.” Seattle Post-Intelligencer, August 1, 1892, 5.

Porsild, Charlene. Gamblers and Dreamers: Women, Men, and Community in the Klondike. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press, 1999.

USS Klondike AD-22 - History

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World War II and afterwards, 1945 Edit

After provisioning and receiving ammunition on 6 May, Union proceeded to Norfolk, Virginia, for shakedown training. She returned to the Norfolk Navy Yard on 15 May for availability and loading before departing for Pearl Harbor. On 27 May, the ship left Norfolk for the Canal Zone and arrived at Hawaii on 18 June 1945. After unloading her cargo and undergoing availability for repairs, Union left Honolulu on 16 July en route to Eniwetok and Guam. Stopping briefly at Eniwetok on 24 July, Union proceeded to Guam where she arrived on 2 August 1945.

The ship received orders to transport cargo to Leyte in the Philippines and got underway on 20 August. Upon arrival, she was directed to unload and proceed at once to Cebu where she loaded and transported units of the Americal Division to Japan as part of Transport Squadron (TransRon) 13, consisting of some 22 ships. The group steamed into Yokohama harbor on 8 September, and she unloaded her cargo and the Army personnel. Two days later, Union got underway for a turnaround trip to the Philippines. She was diverted to Okinawa to pick up repatriated prisoners of war for Guam where she arrived on 16 September. Union remained at Guam through 2 October when she set course for Tsingtao, China, to transport marines for occupation duty.

On 24 October 1945, Union anchored at Manila, then made a round trip to Subic Bay with Leo (AKA-60) to pick up landing craft replacements for the entire squadron. The ship departed Manila Bay on 30 October for Haiphong, French Indochina, to embark elements of the 52nd Chinese Nationalist Army for transportation to Chinwangtao, North China. Having disembarked the troops and equipment on 12 November, Union proceeded to Taku, China, and remained there until she received orders on 1 December. The following day, she set course for Manila Bay, Philippines, thence to San Pedro, California, via Pearl Harbor. She arrived in California on 29 December.

1946–1950 Edit

Union operated out of San Diego conducting local operations between periods of upkeep. Caught in the tremendous postwar personnel turnover, Union sometimes operated with less than 50 men on board. In early September 1946, she was called upon to transport typhoon relief supplies to Guam. Some ports visited were Pearl Harbor Guam Saipan Samar Island, Philippines Tsingtao, and Taku, China. Her amphibious expertise contributed to her success during Operation "Shaft Alley" in Samar and also in resupplying marines at Guam and Peking. Christmas morning of 1946 found Union anchored off Taku Bar where she celebrated the New Year.

Throughout January and February 1947, Union conducted operations at Samar Island, Philippines Tsingtao, China and Guam. On 23 February, she departed Samar for San Diego via Pearl Harbor. The ship arrived at San Diego on 22 March, then sailed to the Puget Sound Naval Shipyard for a scheduled overhaul. On 14 May, the ship departed Puget Sound for San Diego via San Francisco and began preparing for "Barex-47," the 1947 Point Barrow supply expedition. After loading at Port Hueneme, Union and Muliphen (AKA-61) departed for Seattle on 7 July. On 30 July, the expedition left Seattle for the purpose of delivering supplies to agencies north of the Arctic Circle. After unloading at Point Barrow and Wainwright, Alaska, she loaded empty oil drums and old ammunition at Kodiak, Alaska, and delivered her cargo to Seattle on 24 August.

Personnel shortages throughout the Navy necessitated the ship's restricted mobility status for about eight months after she returned to San Diego on 6 September 1947. During the summer of 1948, Union repeated the Point Barrow resupply trip. On 26 July 1948, "Barex-48" got underway from Seattle. Union returned to San Diego on 24 August and finished out the year conducting local operations, which included Operations "Satanic" and "Demon."

On 10 January 1949, Union departed San Diego for "Microex-49," a cold weather amphibious operation off Kodiak and Whittier, Alaska. The ship returned to San Diego on 25 February and conducted a month of local operations before undergoing overhaul at the Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Bremerton, Washington, from 31 March to 10 May 1949. Returning to San Diego, Union prepared for a third Point Barrow trip. The off-loading at Point Barrow, Alaska, was accomplished from 3 to 6 August. On 16 August, Union arrived back at Port Hueneme, California, and then proceeded to San Diego. She spent the remainder of 1949 in San Diego conducting local operations with the exception of Operation "Miki," a major amphibious exercise in the Hawaiian area held during the month of October.

Union departed Pearl Harbor on 7 November and arrived at Seattle, Washington, for a one-day stay. She returned to her home port on 21 November and operated in the San Diego area until 22 May 1950 when she set course for Yokosuka, Japan, arriving on 6 June.

Korean War, 1950–1953 Edit

The Korean War began on 25 June 1950. On that day, Union was underway conducting landing exercises at Sagami Wan, Honshū, Japan. She stopped briefly at Yokosuka before arriving at Sasebo on 3 July for repairs. Repairs and training continued at Yokosuka until Union sailed to Yokohama on 11 July to embark Army troops and equipment for transportation to Pohang, Korea, on 18 July. Having delivered her cargo, the ship returned to Yokosuka on 25 July and conducted various exercises until 4 September when she arrived at Kobe, Japan, to reload. On 11 September, Union got underway for Jinsen, Korea, where boat landings took place four days later amidst mortar, machine gun, and rifle fire. On 21 September, Union departed for Sasebo, Japan, with seven casualties on board. After delivering the casualties, Union travelled to Kobe, Japan, arriving on 4 October. She set course for Inchon, Korea, that day and arrived four days later to unload marines and equipment. She stopped at Yonghung Man Kosen, Korea, for five days before arriving at Yokosuka on 2 November. Union then got underway for San Diego, California, returning to her home port on 22 November 1950.

Union then proceeded to the San Francisco Naval Shipyard for a regular overhaul which lasted from 1 December 1950 to 14 February 1951. She returned to San Diego on 24 February and operated in her home port area until 5 July. At that time, she set sail for the Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Bremerton, Washington, for a month of repairs.

The next assignment for Union was the first of two resupply trips to the Pribilof Islands of St. Paul and St. George in the Bering Sea, the homeland of the largest fur-seal herd in the world. Her primary mission was to deliver tons of supplies to personnel of the Bureau of Commercial Fisheries who worked on the two small islands. The ship arrived back at San Diego on 4 September.

Later in September, Union sailed to Subic Bay, Philippines, carrying heavy earth-moving equipment. She then began forward area amphibious training with the 45th Army Division off the island of Hokkaidō, Japan. During December, the ship sailed to Hong Kong and lifted Allied troop replacements to Inchon, Korea. Union returned to Sasebo, Japan, on 22 December and remained in port through 15 January 1952.

On 19 January 1952, the ship returned to Yokosuka, Japan, and conducted operations between Yokosuka, Chigasaki, and Sasebo until March of that year.

On 19 March 1952, Union helped to shift a battalion of marines from Sokcho Ri, a harbor on the east coast of Korea, to the west coast. After the lift was accomplished, the ship returned to Yokosuka, Japan, on 5 April. After a trip to Buckner Bay on 19 April and several round trips between Yokosuka and Sasebo, she embarked troops and landed them on the island of Koje-do on 21 May. Union departed Yokosuka on 14 June for San Diego via Pearl Harbor. She arrived at San Diego on 2 July 1952 and spent the remainder of the summer in local operations and upkeep. In September, she sailed north to ban Francisco for a regular shipyard overhaul by Mechanix, Inc., which lasted from 25 September to 24 November 1952. Union spent the remainder of the year in the San Diego area.

The first half of 1953 was spent in refresher training and local operations in the San Diego area. On 14 July, Union sailed for her fifth cruise to the Orient. The war in Korea was concluded by a truce on 27 July, and Union arrived at Yokosuka, Japan, on 9 August. She received orders to Korea and transported North Korean prisoners of war from Koje-do to Inchon in two trips which fully occupied the month of August. From September through November, Union divided her time between Japan, Korea, and Hong Kong. The ship got underway for the United States on 1 December 1953 and returned to San Diego on 19 December 1953, in time for a leave and upkeep period over the holidays.

1954–1959 Edit

January through April 1954 found Union engaged in local operations and upkeep in the San Diego area. On 26 April, she sailed for San Francisco via Port Hueneme, California. From 3 May to 2 July, Union underwent a regular overhaul at the Todd Shipyards Corp., Alameda, California. The ship returned to San Diego on 11 July and spent the summer in refresher training.

On 1 October, Union joined Amphibious Squadron 1 and, on the 23rd, she departed for a sixth Western Pacific (WestPac) deployment. Union arrived at Yokosuka, Japan, on 10 November and underwent voyage repairs. She visited the Japanese ports of Osaka and Sasebo and celebrated Christmas at sea en route to Korea. While training Korean Marine Corps and Navy units, Union ushered in the New Year at Chinhae.

In January 1955, Union proceeded to Subic Bay, Philippines, via Sasebo, Japan. After a restricted availability at Subic and a visit to Hong Kong, Union departed in February for the Tachen Islands where she and other ships assisted in the evacuation of Chinese Nationalist troops and refugee civilians. Having landed the evacuees at Keelung on 13 February, Union visited Hong Kong, Yokosuka, and Beppu, Japan.

After loading men and equipment of the 1st Marine Division at Inchon, Union departed on 3 April for a quick turn-around trip to San Diego. She returned to Pusan, Korea, on 20 May and arrived back at San Pedro, California, on 12 June with Marine air group personnel and equipment.

Union spent the month of January 1956 participating in Operation "Cowealex" which called for a landing on Umnak Island in the Aleutians. Rough weather necessitated changing the landing site to Unalaska Island in Makuskin Bay. The ship returned to San Diego on 9 February and conducted local operations. Union then left California en route to Pearl Harbor to participate in a landing exercise, "Hawrltlex 1–56" which concluded on 11 April. She arrived at San Diego on 23 April and spent the months until November taking part in local operations and undergoing upkeep. Late in August, Union made a brief trip to Vancouver, British Columbia, to represent the United States Navy in the Pacific National Exhibit. On 13 November 1956, the ship sailed for San Francisco and an overhaul at the San Francisco Naval Shipyard at Hunters Point.

Having completed her regular overhaul, Union returned to San Diego on 27 January 1957 and conducted refresher training. She then took part in a number of amphibious exercises off Coronado Roads. In early June, Union turned in her 5-inch stern gun and her 20 millimeter mounts to the Naval Repair Facility, San Diego. In July, she participated in Operation "Workhorse," a local landing exercise.

On 23 August 1957, Union got underway for WestPac via Pearl Harbor. She arrived at Yokosuka, Japan, on 12 September and underwent restricted availability. Union then visited Kure, Nagoya, and Chigasaki Beach before returning to Yokosuka to pick up Marine Corps cargo for Naha, Okinawa. On 4 November, she sailed for Subic Bay, Philippines. Union spent the remainder of the year in cargo-carrying tasks which took her to Taiwan, the Philippines, Hong Kong, and Okinawa. Christmas and New Year's Day were spent in Subic Bay, Philippines.

The year 1958 began with a week-long visit to Hong Kong, after which she proceeded to Yokosuka. On 5 February, Union departed Yokosuka for Okinawa to prepare for Operation "Strongback," a major 7th Fleet amphibious assault exercise at Dingalen Bay, Luzon, Philippines, in which destroyers, cruisers, and carriers took part in screening, gunfire, and air support tasks. D-day was 1 March, and Union returned to San Diego, via Pearl Harbor, on 2 April.

April, May, and June 1958 were occupied with leave, upkeep, and local operations in the San Diego area. Union underwent a material inspection during July, and a resupply expedition to the Pribilof Islands scheduled for August was cancelled due to the Lebanon crisis which broke in early July. During September, the ship took part in "Phiblex 2–59," a full-scale landing exercise for the 1st Marine Division at Camp Pendleton.

After spending October in the San Diego area, Union sailed on 10 November for San Francisco and another regular yard overhaul. After off-loading cargo and ammunition, she arrived at the Mare Island Naval Shipyard for overhaul which lasted from 17 November 1958 to 16 January 1959.

Union returned to San Diego on 25 January. Shortly thereafter, she underwent refresher training, followed by amphibious training commencing on 17 March which completed her "working up." On 16 April, Union sailed for WestPac. On 22 April, she was detached and proceeded independently to Guam, thence to Subic Bay, Philippines. Throughout June, Union remained in the vicinity of Okinawa. She participated in Exercise "Reconnex 1–60" off Irimote Jima, Japan, from 20 to 28 June.

On 10 July 1959, Union and Comstock (LSD-19) embarked the 3rd Anti-Tank Battalion and sailed for Numazu, Japan, to commence the first phase of Operation "Tankex." Other ports which Union visited in connection with the operation were Kobe and Joji. In September, Union performed three weeks of duty as station ship in Hong Kong.

On 1 November 1959, Union set sail for San Diego via Pearl Harbor. She arrived at San Diego on 24 November and ended the year with a leave and upkeep period for the holiday season.

1960–1965 Edit

During the first six months of 1960, Union conducted local operations and necessary upkeep and repair periods in her home port area of San Diego. In February, she participated in Operation "Swan Dive," a Marine landing at Camp Pendleton. In May, she took part in Operation "Big Top," in which Marine air and naval surface units combined to land marines on Camp Pendleton beaches with an airlift of helicopter-borne troops among the initial assault waves.

On 21 June, Union deployed to WestPac via Pearl Harbor. During the first part of the deployment, the ship made stops at Guam Okinawa Subic Bay, Philippines Hong Kong and Yokosuka, Japan, conducting various cargo-personnel lifts. In September, Union embarked the Army's 1st Battle Group of the 2nd Infantry at Inchon, Korea, for a practice exercise on the beaches of Pohang Dong, Korea, and returned to Inchon. In October, Union visited the Japanese ports of Kure, Numazu, and Kobe. She carried out a people-to-people program which included an orphans' party, exchange of wardroom visits with Japanese officers, a tour of the ship by Japanese officers and petty officers, two visits for an evening meal by Japanese students from universities and colleges, a presentation of several utility items to a Numazu orphanage, and several softball games.

During a second visit to Hong Kong in November, Union acted as station ship. In December, she completed her WestPac deployment and returned to San Diego. A Christmas leave period commenced on 22 December.

The early weeks of 1961 were spent in leave and upkeep in anticipation of the regular overhaul commencing 15 February. Completed under four separate commercial repair contracts, the extended completion date was 26 April 1961. May, June, and July were spent in the San Diego area, where Union underwent two intensive training periods followed by leave and upkeep.

Departing San Diego on 4 August, Union was chartered by the Department of Commerce to make her second and the Navy's last resupply trip to the Pribilof Islands. Cargo off-loading operations commenced at St. George Island early on the 21st. Strong winds, high seas, and thick fog made this entire operation a challenge to seamanship and perseverance. The ship arrived at Seattle, Washington, on 3 September and disembarked passengers and cargo. The following year, the Department of Commerce would carry on this work with its own vessel, thus ending a Navy mission initiated in the 1920s by executive order of President Coolidge.

After five weeks in San Diego preparing for deployment, Union sailed for her home port on 16 October. Upon her arrival at Pearl Harbor, the ship took part in Operation "Silver Sword," a landing exercise of 5,000 marines on the beaches of Maui. The landing commenced one minute after midnight on 30 October. On 15 November. Amphibious Squadron 1 sailed from Pearl Harbor. Union and Washburn (AKA-108) broke off from the squadron and arrived at Sasebo on 28 November 1961. After voyage repairs at Sasebo, Union steamed to Hong Kong where she served as station ship for the remainder of the year, 16 December 1961 through 14 January 1962.

Union was relieved as station ship on 15 January, and she sailed for Subic Bay, Philippines. After 10 days of upkeep, Union returned to her work of amphibious operations and participated in the "Away All Boats" exercise.

The ship then sailed for Buckner Bay, Okinawa, to load a cargo of Marine Corps equipment. In February, Union learned that her deployment had been extended two weeks so she could participate in Operation "Tulungan," a SEATO exercise in which the United States Navy and Marine Corps, the Royal Australian Air Force, and Philippine units took part. An unusually long operation, "Tulungan" lasted from mid-February to mid-April. Union left Yokosuka for San Diego on 17 April.

After arriving in San Diego on 5 May 1962, Union spent May and June in leave, upkeep, and training exercises in the San Diego area. On 26 July, she steamed for an interim overhaul lasting from 1 August to 7 September at Seattle, Washington. Refresher training commenced off San Diego on 5 October. On 27 October, Union got underway for the Panama Canal with Task Group (TG) 53.2. Having transited the Panama Canal on 5 November, Union moored at Cristobal, Canal Zone, and later anchored at Limon Bay, Colon. Union arrived at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, on 30 November to take part in the Cuban quarantine. She conducted cargo operations at Roosevelt Roads and Vieques, Puerto Rico, and enjoyed liberty at Kingston, Jamaica. On 2 December, Union got underway for California via the Panama Canal. She arrived back at San Diego on 16 December and spent the remainder of 1962 in leave and upkeep.

January 1963 was spent in preparing for and participating in amphibious operational training off Coronado, California. In February. Union got underway for the naval ammunition depot at Seal Beach, California, where the ammunition which had been on board for possible use during the Cuban crisis was off-loaded. The remainder of the month was spent preparing for Exercise "Steel Gate." At the completion of "Steel Gate," Union commenced preparation for her deployment to WestPac.

Union departed San Diego on 26 March for the transit to Okinawa via Pearl Harbor. While underway, she participated in Exercise "Windmill," which simulated a merchant convoy. After off-loading at Pearl Harbor and Okinawa, Union arrived at Sasebo, Japan, for routine voyage repairs. It was May when Union arrived at Yokosuka, Japan, to off-load material and accomplish routine upkeep.

The next mission of the Union was to participate in the 24th annual Black Ship Festival at Shimoda, Japan. This festival commemorates the arrival in Shimoda of Commodore Perry and his squadron of "Black Ships" in 1854. Having brought good will to Shimoda, Union next steamed to Sasebo for upkeep, then on to Pusan, Korea, where she provided facilities for Korean units to stage a ship-to-shore movement. June arrived with Union underway for Naha, Okinawa, to embark marines for the upcoming Operation "Flagpole" at Kuryongpo, Korea. Typhoon "Shirley" greatly hampered the landing phase of the operation, but it was finally completed despite torrential rains, floods, washed out roads, and dense fog.

After a port visit to Kure, Japan, Union off-loaded "Flagpole" gear at Buckner Bay, then underwent a period of upkeep at Yokosuka. It was there that she embarked midshipmen for a cruise which took her to the ports of Keelung, Taiwan Hong Kong and Subic Bay, Philippines, where the midshipmen debarked.

The ship travelled to Inchon, Korea, to prepare for Exercise "Bayonet Beach," which provided for ship-to-shore movements in the area of Pohang, Korea. After the exercise, Union sailed from Iwakuni, Japan, to Subic Bay, Philippines, with Marine aviation ordnance equipment. After a period of upkeep at Yokosuka, she visited Kobe, Japan, and met with an anti-American demonstration staged by the Japanese Peace Committee, a communist organization.

On 20 October 1963, Union proceeded south to Okinawa to rendezvous with her squadron and begin the transit to San Diego via Pearl Harbor. She arrived on 13 November and enjoyed a period of liberty. As the year came to an end, Union was preparing for an upcoming yard overhaul.

January 1964 found Union in San Diego concluding a leave and upkeep period. On 18 January, she sailed for San Francisco and, four days later, proceeded to Richmond, California, for drydocking at the Willamette Iron and Steel Co. Drydocking was completed on 6 February and the remainder of the overhaul on 26 March. Union returned to San Diego on 4 April and, on the 27th, reported for four weeks of intensive refresher training. Training reached a successful culmination on 22 May, and a two-week upkeep period followed.

From 8 to 19 June, Union participated in amphibious refresher training at Coronado, California. A period of availability alongside Klondike (AR-22) followed and, from 3 to 12 July, Union was assigned an upkeep period. Union enjoyed an extended period of upkeep from 17 July to 24 August when Operation "Cascade Columbia II," scheduled to commence on 13 August, was cancelled as a result of the tense military situation in Vietnam.

After conducting a midshipmen cruise and on-loading supplies and marines, Union got underway from San Diego on 25 August to participate in Exercise "Sea Bar" at Solo Point, Wash. Two days later, Union proceeded independently to Astoria, Oregon, to take part in the 44th annual Astoria Regatta and Fish Festival. On 1 September, Exercise "Sea Bar" got underway for nine days of amphibious landings. On 14 September, Union returned to her home port and underwent a material inspection.

The ship next began to prepare for Exercise "Hard Nose," a major amphibious landing exercise involving 39 ships and some 11,000 marines. The 12-day exercise began on 6 October and concluded on the beach of Camp Pendleton on the morning of 17 October. Upon returning to San Diego, Union began an extended period of upkeep in preparation for an upcoming WestPac deployment.

On 16 November, Union departed San Diego for a 5,900-mile transit of the Pacific Ocean. On 7 December, she arrived at Buckner Bay, Okinawa. After off-loading and readying the boat group, Union got underway for local operations. On 20 December, Union set course for Subic Bay, Philippines. Three days later, she moored at Rivera Point, Subic Bay. The crew received an unexpected treat when comedian Bob Hope and his troupe presented their annual Christmas show at Subic Bay on 28 December 1964.

Vietnam, 1965–1969 Edit

Union began the New Year 1965 with a round-trip from Subic Bay to Buckner Bay, Okinawa, and Hong Kong. She returned to Subic Bay on 23 January and conducted task group operations throughout the month of February. On 8 March, Union anchored at Da Nang, South Vietnam. On 12 March, she departed for Yokosuka, Japan, where she went into drydock until 29 March. After spending several days moored pierside, Union departed on 6 April for special operations at Buckner Bay, Okinawa. On 14 April, the ship anchored at Da Nang, along with USS Cook, USS Henrico and amphibious assault ship USS Vancouver. They transported marines to Da Nang, bringing the total to nearly 8,000.

Upon leaving Da Nang, South Vietnam, Union sailed to an anchorage at the mouth of the Perfume River and remained there until 19 April. She anchored briefly at Buckner Bay, Okinawa, before conducting four days of special operations culminating in a landing at Baie De Dung, Vietnam. On 16 May, Union again returned to Buckner Bay, only to sail again four days later for Chu Lai harbor, Vietnam, conducting special operations en route. On 27 May, she arrived at Da Nang harbor, and proceeded to Yokosuka, Japan, arriving there on 4 June 1965.

Union departed the Far East and arrived at San Diego, California, on 23 June. The month of July was spent undergoing tender availability with USS Klondike. After loading ammunition at Seal Beach, California, Union again departed for Buckner Bay, Okinawa, arriving on 28 August. The ship set course for Yokosuka, Japan, on 31 August and, after a nine-day visit, Union sailed for Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, arriving there on 21 September. Two days later, she got underway for San Diego, where she arrived on 30 September.

October and November were spent in port at San Diego. In mid-December, she got underway for local operations, and Union finished the year 1965 moored at her home port.

The first six months of 1966 were spent in amphibious refresher training and restricted availability at San Diego. During July, Union prepared for deployment by loading ammunition and Marine cargo. On 27 July, the ship departed for another WestPac cruise. She arrived at Okinawa on 22 August, then continued to Da Nang, South Vietnam, where she back-loaded BLT 3/3 (Battalion Landing Team, 3rd Battalion, 3rd Marines) and transported the marines to Okinawa for a recreation and retraining cycle. Union then proceeded to Cam Ranh Bay, South Vietnam, where, on 15 September, elements of the Republic of Korea Marines were loaded for transportation to Chu Lai. When this offload had been completed, boiler troubles forced Union into an availability at Subic Bay from 27 September through 7 October.

With all repairs completed, Union commenced a lengthy period of support operations for Commander, Military Assistance Command, Vietnam, which extended to 21 November. The ship arrived at Okinawa on 26 November and, after a few days for liberty and replenishment, loaded elements of BLT 1st Battalion, 9th Marines (BLT 1/9). She sailed for Subic Bay, Philippines, on 3 December. On 14 December, Bravo Company from BLT 1/9 conducted wet-net training on the "Union" to practice amphibious doctrine in preparation for Operation Deckhouse V. After her detachment from this duty, Union set course for Sasebo, looking forward to a holiday upkeep period which lasted through the 27th. As the year closed, Union was once again at Okinawa loading BLT 4th Battalion, 4th Marines. On the final day of 1966, a practice turnaway landing was conducted at Chin Wan in preparation for actual movement across the beach that would follow on New Year's Day.

The first day of 1967 found Union in the last phase of her WestPac tour. After landing craft training operations in the Okinawa area, Union departed Okinawa en route to Da Nang, Vietnam. After off-loading and back-loading Marine vehicles, the ship returned to Okinawa on 14 January. An upkeep period at Sasebo, Japan, began on 17 January and was followed by rest and recreation at Keelung, Taiwan, and Kobe, Japan. On 15 February, Union set course for Yokosuka, Japan, spending 10 days in port there and then departing for San Diego. Union entered San Diego Bay on 15 March 1967, completing her 15th WestPac cruise.

After a month-long leave period, preparations began for Operation "Alligator Hide," an amphibious assault at Coronado Roads, California. Following the operation, Union spent 13 days in port and, on 15 May, conducted individual ship exercises. On 29 May 1967, Union suddenly received orders to perform duties as a reconnaissance ship, trailing the Russian trawler Peleng, which had been operating off the coast of southern California near Catalina and San Clemente Islands. Union stayed within close range of the trawler for 10 days. On 5 June, she was relieved on station by USS Taussig and returned to San Diego.

After an administrative inspection, the ship made preparations for overhaul which commenced on 8 July at Pacific Ship Repair, Inc., San Francisco, California. She returned to her home port on 1 October to prepare for refresher training. A month-long refresher training period ended on 1 December and was followed by an amphibious inspection which was completed on 22 December. Union spent the 1967 holiday season moored at her home port.

The new year, 1968, began with Union enjoying a leave period which lasted until 26 January. On 1 February, Union departed San Diego for another WestPac deployment. Union arrived at Buckner Bay, Okinawa, on 26 February. She operated off the coast of Vietnam transporting much-needed equipment and ammunition. From 20 to 27 March, the ship participated in Operation "Former Champ" with Nationalist Chinese ships and marines in Taiwan. On 7 April, Union escorted USS Asheville to Subic Bay, Philippines, for engineering repairs. After a brief stop at Yokosuka, Japan, the ship set course for San Diego via Pearl Harbor. Union arrived at her home port on 16 September 1968 after completing a seven-month deployment.

Upon returning to San Diego, Union enjoyed a month-long period of leave. On 16 October, she commenced an upkeep period followed by a period of restricted availability which lasted through 30 November. The ship conducted independent ship's exercises before commencing a holiday leave period on 14 December.

From 1 January to 1 August 1969, her schedule was filled with all types of operational training, inspections, and upkeep evolutions in the San Diego-San Francisco area. Union conducted training exercises at Acapulco, Mexico, from 14 to 27 April and, from 17 to 21 June, the ship took part in Exercise "Bell Call," an amphibious operation which included embarkation, withdrawal, movement, demonstration, simultaneous surface and helicopter assault, and subsequent troop exercise ashore.

On 1 August 1969, Union departed San Diego en route to Pearl Harbor, thence to Yokosuka, Japan, arriving on 23 August. After a brief upkeep period, she departed on 29 August for Okinawa where she spent three days conducting amphibious exercises. On 5 September, Union got underway for Da Nang, Vietnam. She transported cargo from Da Nang to Okinawa until 19 November when she departed Da Nang for Subic Bay, Philippines.

Having off-loaded three-fourths of the ship's ammunition in preparation for a homeward transit, Union proceeded to Okinawa on 26 November to complete her offloading. She departed Okinawa three days later for the long voyage to San Diego where she arrived on 18 December. Union deviated from her course twice on 6 December to transport an injured marine to a hospital on Midway Island as soon as possible the next day, to assist in the restoration of the French Frigate Shoals LORAN station at Tern Island, Hawaii. The remainder of 1969, from 18 to 31 December, was devoted to a leave period for the ship's crew.

Decommissioning and sale Edit

Union was placed out of commission, in reserve, on 5 June 1970 and transferred to the Maritime Administration at Suisun Bay, California. On 1 September 1976, she was stricken from the Navy List. Union was sold in September 1977 to National Metal and Steel Corp. of Terminal Island, California, for scrapping.

Union was awarded two battle stars for Korean service and nine battle stars for her Vietnam service.

History [ edit ]

Early designs [ edit ]

Early attempts at powering a boat by steam were made by the French inventor Denis Papin and the English inventor Thomas Newcomen. Papin invented the steam digester (a type of pressure cooker) and experimented with closed cylinders and pistons pushed in by atmospheric pressure, analogous to the pump built by Thomas Savery in England during the same period.

In 1705, Papin constructed a ship powered by his steam engine, which was mechanically linked to paddles. This made him the first to construct a steam-powered boat (or vehicle of any kind). He steamed down the river Fulda to Münden. A guild of boatmen there had a legal monopoly on traffic on that river. They "set upon Papin's boat and smashed it and the steam engine to pieces", completely demolishing Papin's steamboat. [3]

Newcomen was able to produce mechanical power, but the Newcomen atmospheric engine was very large and heavy. [4] [5]

A steamboat was described and patented by English physician John Allen in 1729. [6] In 1736, Jonathan Hulls was granted a patent in England for a Newcomen engine-powered steamboat (using a pulley instead of a beam, and a pawl and ratchet to obtain rotary motion), but it was the improvement in steam engines by James Watt that made the concept feasible. William Henry of Lancaster, Pennsylvania, having learned of Watt's engine on a visit to England, made his own engine. In 1763 he put it in a boat. The boat sank, and while Henry made an improved model, he did not appear to have much success, though he may have inspired others. [7]

The first steam-powered ship Pyroscaphe was a paddle steamer powered by a Newcomen steam engine it was built in France in 1783 by Marquis Claude de Jouffroy and his colleagues as an improvement of an earlier attempt, the 1776 Palmipède. At its first demonstration on 15 July 1783, Pyroscaphe travelled upstream on the river Saône for some fifteen minutes before the engine failed. Presumably this was easily repaired as the boat is said to have made several such journeys. [8] [ self-published source? ] [9] Following this, De Jouffroy attempted to get the government interested in his work, but for political reasons was instructed that he would have to build another version on the Seine in Paris. De Jouffroy did not have the funds for this, and, following the events of the French revolution, work on the project was discontinued after he left the country. [10] [ self-published source? ] [11]

Similar boats were made in 1785 by John Fitch in Philadelphia and William Symington in Dumfries, Scotland. Fitch successfully trialled his boat in 1787, and in 1788, he began operating a regular commercial service along the Delaware River between Philadelphia and Burlington, New Jersey, carrying as many as 30 passengers. This boat could typically make 7 to 8 miles per hour (11 to 13 km/h) and travelled more than 2,000 miles (3,200 km) during its short length of service. The Fitch steamboat was not a commercial success, as this travel route was adequately covered by relatively good wagon roads. The following year, a second boat made 30-mile (48 km) excursions, and in 1790, a third boat ran a series of trials on the Delaware River before patent disputes dissuaded Fitch from continuing. [7]

Meanwhile, Patrick Miller of Dalswinton, near Dumfries, Scotland, had developed double-hulled boats propelled by manually cranked paddle wheels placed between the hulls, even attempting to interest various European governments in a giant warship version, 246 feet (75 m) long. Miller sent King Gustav III of Sweden an actual small-scale version, 100 feet (30 m) long, called Experiment. [12] Miller then engaged engineer William Symington to build his patent steam engine that drove a stern-mounted paddle wheel in a boat in 1785. The boat was successfully tried out on Dalswinton Loch in 1788 and was followed by a larger steamboat the next year. Miller then abandoned the project.

19th century [ edit ]

The failed project of Patrick Miller caught the attention of Lord Dundas, Governor of the Forth and Clyde Canal Company, and at a meeting with the canal company's directors on 5 June 1800, they approved his proposals for the use of "a model of a boat by Captain Schank to be worked by a steam engine by Mr Symington" on the canal.

The boat was built by Alexander Hart at Grangemouth to Symington's design with a vertical cylinder engine and crosshead transmitting power to a crank driving the paddlewheels. Trials on the River Carron in June 1801 were successful and included towing sloops from the river Forth up the Carron and thence along the Forth and Clyde Canal.

In 1801, Symington patented a horizontal steam engine directly linked to a crank. He got support from Lord Dundas to build a second steamboat, which became famous as the Charlotte Dundas, named in honour of Lord Dundas's daughter. Symington designed a new hull around his powerful horizontal engine, with the crank driving a large paddle wheel in a central upstand in the hull, aimed at avoiding damage to the canal banks. The new boat was 56 ft (17.1 m) long, 18 ft (5.5 m) wide and 8 ft (2.4 m) depth, with a wooden hull. The boat was built by John Allan and the engine by the Carron Company.

The first sailing was on the canal in Glasgow on 4 January 1803, with Lord Dundas and a few of his relatives and friends on board. The crowd were pleased with what they saw, but Symington wanted to make improvements and another more ambitious trial was made on 28 March. On this occasion, the Charlotte Dundas towed two 70 ton barges 30 km (almost 20 miles) along the Forth and Clyde Canal to Glasgow, and despite "a strong breeze right ahead" that stopped all other canal boats it took only nine and a quarter hours, giving an average speed of about 3 km/h (2 mph). The Charlotte Dundas was the first practical steamboat, in that it demonstrated the practicality of steam power for ships, and was the first to be followed by continuous development of steamboats. [13]

The American, Robert Fulton, was present at the trials of the Charlotte Dundas and was intrigued by the potential of the steamboat. While working in France, he corresponded with and was helped by the Scottish engineer Henry Bell, who may have given him the first model of his working steamboat. [14] He designed his own steamboat, which sailed along the River Seine in 1803.

He later obtained a Boulton and Watt steam engine, shipped to America, where his first proper steamship was built in 1807, [15] North River Steamboat (later known as Clermont), which carried passengers between New York City and Albany, New York. Clermont was able to make the 150-mile (240 km) trip in 32 hours. The steamboat was powered by a Boulton and Watt engine and was capable of long-distance travel. It was the first commercially successful steamboat, transporting passengers along the Hudson River.

In 1807 Robert L. Stevens began operation of the Phoenix, which used a high-pressure engine in combination with a low-pressure condensing engine. The first steamboats powered only by high pressure were the Aetna and Pennsylvania, designed and built by Oliver Evans. [16]

In October 1811 a ship designed by John Stevens, Little Juliana, would operate as the first steam-powered ferry between Hoboken and New York City. Stevens' ship was engineered as a twin-screw-driven steamboat in juxtaposition to Clermont ' s Boulton and Watt engine. [17] The design was a modification of Stevens' prior paddle steamer Phoenix, the first steamship to successfully navigate the open ocean in its route from Hoboken to Philadelphia. [18]

Henry Bell's PS Comet of 1812 inaugurated a passenger service along the River Clyde in Scotland.

The Margery, launched in Dumbarton in 1814, in January 1815 became the first steamboat on the River Thames, much to the amazement of Londoners. She operated a London-to-Gravesend river service until 1816, when she was sold to the French and became the first steamboat to cross the English Channel. When she reached Paris, the new owners renamed her Elise and inaugurated a Seine steamboat service. [19]

In 1818, Ferdinando I, the first Italian steamboat, left the port of Naples, where it had been built. [20]

Ocean-going [ edit ]

The first sea-going steamboat was Richard Wright's first steamboat "Experiment", an ex-French lugger she steamed from Leeds to Yarmouth, arriving Yarmouth 19 July 1813. [21] "Tug", the first tugboat, was launched by the Woods Brothers, Port Glasgow, on 5 November 1817 in the summer of 1818 she was the first steamboat to travel round the North of Scotland to the East Coast. [22] [ page needed ]


A stoomboot is 'n boot wat aangedryf word hoofsaaklik deur stoomkrag , tipies ry propellers of paddlewheels . Stoombote gebruik soms die voorvoegselbenaming SS , SS of S / S (vir 'Skroefstoomboot') of PS (vir 'Paddle Steamer') hierdie benamings word egter meestal vir stoomskepe gebruik .

Die term stoomboot word gebruik om te verwys na kleiner, insulêre, stoom aangedrewe bote wat op mere en riviere werk, veral rivierbote . Namate stoomgebruik betroubaarder geword het, het stoomkrag toegepas op groter oseaanvaartuie.

Beperkings van die Newcomen-stoomenjin

Vroeë stoombootontwerpe het Newcomen-stoomenjins gebruik . Hierdie enjins was groot, swaar en het min krag gelewer, wat 'n ongunstige krag-tot-gewig-verhouding tot gevolg gehad het. Die Newcomen-enjin het ook 'n heen- en weerbeweging veroorsaak omdat dit ontwerp is om te pomp. Die suier beroerte is veroorsaak deur 'n waterstraal in die stoomgevulde silinder, wat die stoom kondenseer en 'n vakuum skep, wat op sy beurt weer veroorsaak het dat atmosferiese druk die suier na onder dryf. Die suier het staatgemaak op die gewig van die staaf wat aan die ondergrondse pomp gekoppel is om die suier na die bokant van die silinder terug te bring. Die swaar gewig van die Newcomen-enjin het 'n struktuursterk boot vereis, en die heen en weer bewegende beweging van die enjinbalk het 'n ingewikkelde meganisme nodig om voortstuwing te bewerkstellig. [1]

Roterende bewegingsenjins

Die ontwerpverbeterings van James Watt verhoog die doeltreffendheid van die stoommasjien, verbeter die krag-tot-gewig-verhouding, en skep 'n enjin wat in staat is om te draai deur 'n dubbelwerkende silinder te gebruik wat stoom aan elke punt van die suierstoot inspuit om te beweeg. die suier heen en weer. Die roterende stoomenjin vereenvoudig die meganisme wat nodig is om 'n spaanwiel te draai om 'n boot aan te dryf. Ondanks die verbeterde doeltreffendheid en draaibeweging, was die krag-tot-gewig-verhouding van die Boulton- en Watt- stoomenjin steeds laag. [1]

Hoëdruk stoommasjiene

Die hoëdruk stoomenjin was die ontwikkeling wat die stoomboot prakties gemaak het. Dit het 'n hoë krag-tot-gewig-verhouding gehad en was brandstofdoeltreffend. Hoëdruk-enjins is moontlik gemaak deur verbeterings in die ontwerp van ketels en enjinkomponente sodat dit interne druk kan weerstaan, alhoewel ketelontploffings algemeen voorkom as gevolg van gebrek aan instrumentasie soos drukmeters. [1] Pogings om hoëdrukenjins te maak, moes wag tot die verstryking van die Boulton- en Watt- patent in 1800. Kort daarna word hoëdrukenjins deur Richard Trevithick en Oliver Evans ingestel. [1]

Saamgestelde of meervoudige uitbreidingsstoomenjins

Die saamgestelde stoomenjin het in die laat 19de eeu wydverspreid geword. Samestelling gebruik uitlaatstoom van 'n hoëdruksilinder na 'n laer druk silinder en verbeter die doeltreffendheid aansienlik. Met saamgestelde enjins kon stoomdiere in die oseaan minder steenkool dra as vrag. [1] Skepe met saamgestelde stoommasjiene het 'n groot toename in internasionale handel moontlik gemaak. [2]


Die mees doeltreffende stoomenjin gebruik vir mariene aandrywing is die stoomturbine . Dit is ontwikkel teen die einde van die 19de eeu en is dwarsdeur die 20ste eeu gebruik. [1]

Vroeë ontwerpe

'N Apokriewe verhaal uit 1851 skryf Denis Papin die vroegste stoomboot toe vir 'n boot wat hy in 1705 gebou het. Papin was 'n vroeë innoveerder in stoomkrag en die uitvinder van die stoomkoker , die eerste drukkoker , wat 'n belangrike rol in James Watt ' gespeel het. se stoomeksperimente. Papin se boot is egter nie met stoom aangedryf nie, maar word aangedryf deur spane met die hand geslinger. [3]

'N Stoomboot is in 1729 deur die Engelse geneesheer John Allen beskryf en gepatenteer. [4] In 1736 het Jonathan Hulls 'n patent in Engeland gekry vir 'n Newcomen- enjinaangedrewe stoomboot (met behulp van 'n katrol in plaas van 'n balk, en 'n pal en ratel om draaibeweging verkry), maar dit was die verbetering in stoomenjins deur James Watt wat die konsep uitvoerbaar gemaak het. William Henry van Lancaster, Pennsylvania , nadat hy van Watt se enjin geleer het tydens 'n besoek aan Engeland, het sy eie enjin gemaak. In 1763 het hy dit in 'n boot gesit. Die boot het gesink, en hoewel Henry 'n verbeterde model gemaak het, het hy blykbaar nie veel sukses behaal nie, hoewel hy ander dalk geïnspireer het. [5]

Die eerste stoom aangedrewe skip Pyroscaphe was 'n stoomboot aangedryf deur 'n Newcomen-stoomenjin dit is in 1783 in Frankryk gebou deur markies Claude de Jouffroy en sy kollegas as 'n verbetering van 'n vroeëre poging, die 1776 Palmipède . By sy eerste demonstrasie op 15 Julie 1783 reis Pyroscaphe ongeveer vyftien minute stroomop aan die rivier die Saône voordat die enjin onklaar geraak het. Dit is vermoedelik maklik herstelbaar, aangesien die boot na bewering verskeie sulke reise onderneem het. [6] [ self gepubliseerde bron? ] [7] Hierna het De Jouffroy gepoog om die regering in sy werk te laat belangstel, maar om politieke redes is opdrag gegee dat hy 'n ander weergawe op die Seine in Parys sou moes bou. De Jouffroy het nie die fondse hiervoor nie, en na die gebeure van die Franse revolusie is die werk aan die projek gestaak nadat hy die land verlaat het. [8] [ self gepubliseerde bron? ] [9]

Soortgelyke bote is in 1785 gemaak deur John Fitch in Philadelphia en William Symington in Dumfries , Skotland. Fitch het sy boot in 1787 suksesvol getoets, en in 1788 het hy 'n gereelde kommersiële diens langs die Delaware-rivier tussen Philadelphia en Burlington, New Jersey, bedryf, met soveel as 30 passasiers. Hierdie boot kon gewoonlik 11 tot 13 km / h tussen 11 en 13 km per uur ry en het gedurende sy kort diens meer as 3.200 km afgelê. Die Fitch-stoomboot was nie 'n kommersiële sukses nie, aangesien hierdie reisroete voldoende betrek is deur relatief goeie wa-paaie. Die volgende jaar het 'n tweede boot 48 km lange rondleidings gemaak, en in 1790 het 'n derde boot 'n reeks proewe op die Delaware-rivier uitgevoer voordat patentgeskille Fitch afgeskrik het om voort te gaan. [5]

Intussen het Patrick Miller van Dalswinton , naby Dumfries , Skotland , dubbelrompbote ontwikkel wat aangedryf is deur handmatige slingerwiele wat tussen die rompe geplaas is, en selfs probeer om verskillende Europese regerings te interesseer in 'n reuse-weergawe van die oorlogskip, 75 meter lank. Miller het aan koning Gustav III van Swede 'n werklike kleinskaalse weergawe van 30 meter ( Experiment) gestuur . [10] Miller het daarna ingenieur William Symington betrek om sy patentstoom-enjin te bou wat in 1785 met 'n agterwiel in 'n boot bestuur het. Die boot is in 1788 suksesvol op Dalswinton Loch uitprobeer en is die volgende jaar deur 'n groter stoomboot gevolg. . Miller het die projek toe laat vaar.

19de eeu

Die mislukte projek van Patrick Miller trek die aandag van Lord Dundas , goewerneur van die Forth and Clyde Canal Company, en tydens 'n vergadering met die direkteure van die kanaalonderneming op 5 Junie 1800 het hulle sy voorstelle vir die gebruik van 'n "model van 'n boot goedgekeur. deur kaptein Schank om deur 'n stoomenjin deur mnr. Symington " op die kanaal te werk.

Die boot is deur Alexander Hart in Grangemouth volgens Symington se ontwerp gebou met 'n vertikale silinder-enjin en dwarskop wat krag oorstuur na 'n kruk wat die skopwiele aandryf. Proewe op die rivier die Carron in Junie 1801 was suksesvol en het ingesluit sloepe vanaf die rivier Forth tot by die Carron en daarvandaan langs die Forth- en Clyde-kanaal .

In 1801 patenteer Symington 'n horisontale stoomenjin wat direk aan 'n kruk gekoppel is. Hy het ondersteuning van Lord Dundas gekry om 'n tweede stoomboot te bou, wat bekend geword het as die Charlotte Dundas , wat vernoem is ter ere van Lord Dundas se dogter. Symington het 'n nuwe romp om sy kragtige horisontale enjin ontwerp, met die krukas wat 'n groot spaanwiel in 'n sentrale staander in die romp bestuur, wat daarop gemik was om skade aan die kanaalwalle te vermy. Die nuwe boot was 17,1 m lank, 5,5 m breed en 2,4 m diep, met 'n houtromp. Die boot is deur John Allan gebou en die enjin deur die Carron Company .

Die eerste vaart was op die kanaal in Glasgow op 4 Januarie 1803, met Lord Dundas en enkele van sy familielede en vriende aan boord. Die skare was tevrede met wat hulle gesien het, maar Symington wou verbeteringe aanbring en 'n meer ambisieuse verhoor is op 28 Maart gedoen. By hierdie geleentheid het die Charlotte Dundas twee 70 ton ake 30 km (byna 20 myl) langs die Forth- en Clyde-kanaal na Glasgow gesleep , en ten spyte van ''n sterk briesie reg voor' 'wat alle ander kanaalbote gestop het, het dit net nege en 'n kwart geneem. uur, wat 'n gemiddelde snelheid van ongeveer 3 km / h (2 mph) gee. Die Charlotte Dundas was die eerste praktiese stoomboot, deurdat dit die praktiese gebruik van stoomkrag vir skepe getoon het, en die eerste gevolg is deur voortdurende ontwikkeling van stoombote. [11]

Die Amerikaner, Robert Fulton , was teenwoordig tydens die proewe van die Charlotte Dundas en was geïnteresseerd in die potensiaal van die stoomboot. Terwyl hy in Frankryk gewerk het, het hy met die Skotse ingenieur Henry Bell gekorrespondeer en hom gehelp , wat hom moontlik die eerste model van sy werkende stoomboot gegee het. [12] Hy ontwerp sy eie stoomboot, wat in 1803 langs die Seinerivier vaar .

Later het hy 'n stoommasjien van Boulton en Watt gekry , wat na Amerika gestuur is, waar sy eerste behoorlike stoomskip in 1807 gebou is, [13] North River Steamboat (later bekend as Clermont ), wat passasiers vervoer het tussen New York City en Albany, New York . Clermont kon die rit van 240 km binne 32 uur onderneem. Die stoomboot word aangedryf deur 'n Boulton- en Watt- enjin en is in staat om op langafstand te ry. Dit was die eerste kommersiële suksesvolle stoomboot wat passasiers langs die Hudsonrivier vervoer het .

In 1807 begin Robert L. Stevens met die werking van die Phoenix , wat 'n hoëdruk-enjin gebruik in kombinasie met 'n lae-druk-kondenserende enjin. Die eerste stoombote wat slegs deur hoë druk aangedryf word, was die Aetna en Pennsylvania , ontwerp en gebou deur Oliver Evans . [14]

In Oktober 1811 sou 'n skip ontwerp deur John Stevens , Little Juliana , as die eerste stoom aangedrewe veerboot tussen Hoboken en New York City funksioneer . Stevens se skip is ontwerp as 'n tweeling-skroef aangedryf stoomboot in jukstaposisie te Clermont ' s Boulton en Watt enjin. [15] Die ontwerp was 'n wysiging van Stevens se vorige roeistoomboot Phoenix , die eerste stoomskip wat suksesvol deur die oop oseaan op sy roete van Hoboken na Philadelphia beweeg het. [16]

Henry Bell se PS Comet van 1812 het 'n passasiersdiens langs die rivier die Clyde in Skotland ingewy .

Die Margery , wat in 1814 in Dumbarton van stapel gestuur is, word in Januarie 1815 die eerste stoomboot aan die rivier die Teems, tot groot verbasing van die Londenaars. Sy bedryf 'n Londense rivierdiens tot 1816, toe sy aan die Franse verkoop word en die eerste stoomboot word wat die Engelse kanaal oorsteek. Toe sy Parys bereik, het die nuwe eienaars haar Elise herdoop en 'n Seine-stoombootdiens ingewy. [17]

In 1818 het Ferdinando I , die eerste Italiaanse stoomboot, die hawe van Napels verlaat , waar dit gebou is. [18]

Oseaan gaan

Die eerste seestoomboot was Richard Wright se eerste stoomboot "Experiment", 'n oud-Franse lugvaartuig sy stoom van Leeds na Yarmouth, en arriveer Yarmouth op 19 Julie 1813. [19] "Tug", die eerste sleepboot, is op 5 November 1817 deur die Woods Brothers, Port Glasgow, gelanseer in die somer van 1818 was sy die eerste stoomboot wat deur die Noorde van Skotland na die Ooskus gereis het. [20] [ bladsy benodig ]

Verenigde State


Die era van die stoomboot in die Verenigde State het in Philadelphia in 1787 begin toe John Fitch (1743–1798) op 22 Augustus 1787 die eerste suksesvolle proef gemaak het van 'n 14 meter stoomboot op die Delaware-rivier in die teenwoordigheid lede van die Verenigde State se grondwetlike konvensie . Fitch bou later (1790) 'n groter vaartuig wat passasiers en vrag vervoer tussen Philadelphia en Burlington, New Jersey aan die Delaware. Sy stoomboot was nie 'n finansiële sukses nie en is na 'n paar maande diens gestaak, maar dit is die eerste gebruik van mariene stoomaandrywing in die gereelde passasiersvervoerdiens.

Oliver Evans (1755–1819) was 'n uitvinder van Philadelphian , gebore in Newport, Delaware , uit 'n familie van Walliese setlaars. Hy ontwerp 'n verbeterde hoëdruk stoomenjin in 1801, maar bou dit nie [21] (gepatenteer 1804). [22] Die Raad van Gesondheid van Philadelphia was bekommerd oor die probleem met die baggerwerk en skoonmaak van die werwe van die stad, en in 1805 het Evans hulle oortuig om met hom 'n stoom-aangedrewe baggerwerk, wat hy die Oruktor Amphibolos genoem het, te kontrakteer . Dit is gebou, maar was net effens suksesvol. [23] Evans se hoëdruk-stoommasjien het 'n veel hoër krag-tot-gewig-verhouding gehad , wat dit prakties gemaak het om dit in lokomotiewe en stoombote toe te pas. [24] Evans het so depressief geraak vanweë die gebrekkige beskerming dat die Amerikaanse patentwet uitvinders gegee het dat hy uiteindelik al sy ingenieurstekeninge en uitvindingsidees geneem het en vernietig het om te voorkom dat sy kinders hul tyd in die hof verspil om patentoortredings te beveg.

Robert Fulton het 'n stoomboot gebou om 'n roete tussen New York City en Albany, New York, aan die Hudsonrivier te ry . Hy het suksesvol 'n monopolie op die Hudsonrivier-verkeer verkry nadat hy 'n vorige 1797-ooreenkoms met John Stevens , wat uitgebreide grond aan die Hudsonrivier in New Jersey besit het, beëindig het . Die voormalige ooreenkoms het die noordelike Hudsonrivier-verkeer na Livingston en die suide van Stevens verdeel, en ingestem om skepe wat deur Stevens ontwerp is vir albei bedrywighede te gebruik. [25] Met hul nuwe monopolie kan Fulton en Livingston se boot, wat Clermont genoem word na Livingston se landgoed, wins maak. Die Clermont is deur twyfelaars die bynaam "Fulton's Folly" genoem. Op Maandag 17 Augustus 1807 is begin met die onvergeetlike eerste reis van die Clermont die Hudsonrivier op. Sy reis die reis van 240 kilometer na Albany in 'n bietjie meer as 32 uur en maak die retoer binne ongeveer agt uur.

Die gebruik van stoombote op groot Amerikaanse riviere volg spoedig op Fulton se sukses in 1807. In 1811 is die eerste aaneenlopende (nog steeds in kommersiële passasiersbedryf vanaf 2007 [Opdateer] ) lyn van rivierstoombote verlaat die beskuldigdebank by Pittsburgh om in die Ohio-rivier af te stoom na die Mississippi en na New Orleans. [26] In 1817 het 'n konsortium in Sackets Harbour, New York , die konstruksie van die eerste Amerikaanse stoomboot, Ontario , gefinansier wat op Lake Ontario en die Great Lakes geloop het , wat die groei van die kommersiële en passasiersverkeer van die meer begin het . [27] In sy boek Life on the Mississippi het riviervlieënier en skrywer Mark Twain baie van die werking van sulke vaartuie beskryf.

Tipes skepe

Teen 1849 was die skeepsbedryf in oorgang van bote met stoom en stoom aangedrewe bote en van houtkonstruksie na 'n toenemende metaalkonstruksie. Daar is basies drie verskillende soorte skepe gebruik: standaard seilskepe van verskillende soorte , [28] knippers , en paddle-stoomers met paddles wat aan die kant of agterkant gemonteer is. Stoombote in die rivier gebruik gewoonlik roeispane op die agterkant en het plat bodems en vlak rompe wat ontwerp is om groot vragte in die algemeen gladde en soms vlak riviere te dra. Paddestoere in die see gebruik gewoonlik roeispane op die kant en gebruik nouer, dieper rompe wat ontwerp is om te reis in die dikwels stormagtige weer op die see. Die ontwerp van die skeepsromp was dikwels gebaseer op die skeerontwerp van die skeermes, met ekstra versterking om die vragte en stamme wat deur die paddle-wiele opgelê is, te ondersteun wanneer hulle ruwe water teëkom.

Die eerste paddle-stoomboot wat 'n lang seereis onderneem het, was die SS- Savannah van 320 ton (30 voet) , wat in 1819 gebou is, spesifiek vir pakpos en passasiersdiens na en van Liverpool , Engeland. Op 22 Mei 1819 sien die horlosie op die Savannah Ierland ná 23 dae op see raak. Die Allaire Yster Werke van New York verskaf Savannah se se enjin silinder , [29] terwyl die res van die enjin komponente en hardloop rat is vervaardig deur die Veronica Berg van New Jersey . Die laedruk-enjin van 90 perdekrag (67 kW) was van die skuins direkwerkende tipe, met 'n enkele silinder van 40 duim (100 cm) en 'n slag van 1,5 m. Savannah se enjin en masjinerie was buitengewoon groot vir hul tyd. Die skip se smeedijzer- skyfwiele was 16 voet in deursnee met agt emmers per wiel. As brandstof het die vaartuig 75 ton (68 ton) steenkool en 25 koorde (91 m 3 ) hout vervoer . [30]

Die SS Savannah was te klein om baie brandstof te dra, en die enjin was slegs bedoel vir gebruik in kalm weer en om in en uit hawens te klim. Onder gunstige winde kon die seile alleen 'n snelheid van minstens vier knope lewer. Die Savannah word nie as 'n kommersiële sukses beskou nie, en die enjin is verwyder en dit is omgeskakel na 'n gewone seilskip. Teen 1848 was stoombote wat deur sowel die Verenigde State as die Britse skeepsbouers gebou is, reeds gebruik vir pos- en passasiersdienste oor die Atlantiese Oseaan - 'n reis van 4.800 km.

Aangesien roeisters gewoonlik 5 tot 16 kort ton (4,5 tot 14,5 ton) steenkool per dag benodig om hul enjins aan die gang te hou, was dit duurder om te gebruik. Aanvanklik was bykans alle seestoombote met mas en seile toegerus om die stoommasjienkrag aan te vul en krag te voorsien vir geleenthede wanneer die stoommasjien herstel of onderhou moes word. Hierdie stoomskepe het gewoonlik op hoë waarde vrag, pos en passasiers gekonsentreer en het slegs matige vragvermoëns gehad vanweë hul benodigde vragte steenkool. Die tipiese stoomskip van die skopwiel word aangedryf deur 'n enjin wat aan die brand gesteek het, wat vereis het dat brandweermanne die steenkool na die branders moes skoffel. [31] [32]

Deur 1849 die skroef skroef is uitgevind en is stadig bekendgestel as yster toenemend gebruik in skip bou en die maatreëls wat deur propellers stres kan vergoed word vir. Namate die 1800's gevorder het, is hout en hout nodig om houtskepe duurder te maak, en die ysterplaat wat nodig is vir die konstruksie van ysterskepe, word baie goedkoper, aangesien die massiewe ysterwerke in Merthyr Tydfil , Wallis, byvoorbeeld al hoe doeltreffender geword het. Die skroef het baie spanning op die agterkant van die skepe geplaas en sou nie die gebruik daarvan sien voordat die omskakeling van houtbote na ysterbote voltooi was nie - goed aan die gang in 1860. Teen die 1840's was die oseaan-stoomvaartbedryf goed gevestig die Cunard Line en ander betoon.

Die laaste seilfregat van die Amerikaanse vloot, Santee , is in 1855 gelanseer.


In die middel van die 1840's het die verkryging van Oregon en Kalifornië die Weskus oopgestel vir Amerikaanse stoombootverkeer. Vanaf 1848 het die Kongres die Pacific Mail Steamship Company met $ 199,999 gesubsidieer om gereelde pakket- , pos-, passasier- en vragroetes in die Stille Oseaan op te rig. Hierdie gereelde roete het van Panama-stad , Nicaragua en Mexiko na en van San Francisco en Oregon gegaan . Panama City was die eindpunt van die Stille Oseaan van die eilandstreek van Panama oor Panama. Die Atlantiese Oseaan pos kontrak van East Coast stede en New Orleans na en van die Rivier Chagres in Panama is gewen deur die Verenigde State van Amerika Mail Steamship Company wie se eerste paddle wiel stoomskip, die SS Falcon (1848) is Desember 1848 gestuur op 1 na die Karibiese Eilande (Atlantiese) eindpunt van die Isthmus of Panama- roete - die Chagres-rivier .

Die SS Kalifornië (1848) , die eerste Pacific Mail Steamship Company paddle wiel stoomskip, links New York City op 6 Oktober 1848 met net 'n gedeeltelike lading van haar sowat 60 salon (sowat $ 300 kos) en 150 tussendek (sowat $ 150 kos) passasierskapasiteit . Slegs enkeles het die hele pad na Kalifornië gereis. [33] Haar bemanning het ongeveer 36 mans getel. Sy het New York verlaat voordat die berig dat die Gold Rush in Kalifornië die Ooskus bereik het. Nadat die Kaliforniese goudstormloop op 5 Desember 1848 deur president James Polk in sy staatsrede bevestig is, het mense na Panama City gejaag om die SS Kalifornië te vang. Die SS Kalifornië het meer passasiers in Valparaiso , Chili en Panama-stad , Panama, opgetel en in San Francisco opgedaag, gelaai met ongeveer 400 passasiers - twee keer die passasiers waarvoor dit ontwerp was - op 28 Februarie 1849. Sy het ongeveer 400 ander agtergelaat. –600 potensiële passasiers wat nog op soek is na 'n reis vanaf Panama City. Die SS Kalifornië het die reis vanaf Panama en Mexiko onderneem nadat hulle in New York deur Kaap Horn gestoom het - sien SS Kalifornië (1848) .

Die reise met stoomskip na Panama en Nicaragua vanaf New York, Philadelphia, Boston, via New Orleans en Havana, was ongeveer 4200 kilometer lank en het ongeveer twee weke geduur. Reise oor die landengte van Panama of Nicaragua duur gewoonlik ongeveer een week per inheemse kano en muile terug. Die reis van 6,400 km na of van San Francisco na Panama-stad kan binne ongeveer drie weke met 'n stoomwielstoomboot gedoen word . Benewens hierdie reistyd via die Panama-roete, het dit gewoonlik 'n wagtyd van twee tot vier weke gehad om 'n skip te vind wat van Panama City, Panama na San Francisco vóór 1850 gaan. Dit was 1850 voordat genoeg paddle-steamers beskikbaar was in die Atlantiese Oseaan en Stille Oseaanroetes om gereelde gereelde reise op te stel.

Ander stoomskepe het binnekort gevolg, en teen laat in 1849 het stoomskepe met skopwiel soos die SS McKim (1848) [34] mynwerkers en hul voorrade die 125 myl (201 km) rit vanaf San Francisco met die uitgebreide Sacramento – San Joaquin-rivierdelta vervoer na Stockton, Kalifornië , Marysville, Kalifornië , Sacramento , ensovoorts om ongeveer 200 kilometer nader aan die goudvelde te kom. Stoom aangedrewe sleepbote en sleepboten begin werk in die San Francisco Bay kort nadat dit aan te bespoedig gestuur in en uit die baai.

Namate die passasiers-, pos- en waarde-vragonderneming van en na Kalifornië opgeblaas het, is al hoe meer roeisters in gebruik geneem — elf deur die Pacific Mail Steamship Company alleen. Die reis na en van Kalifornië via Panama en stoomrystoele kon in ongeveer 40 dae gedoen word, as daar nie gewag was op versending nie - meer as 100 dae minder as per wa of 160 dae minder as 'n reis deur Kaap Horn . Daar word vermoed dat ongeveer 20-30% van die Argonaute in Kalifornië na hul huise teruggekeer het, meestal aan die Ooskus van die Verenigde State via Panama - die vinnigste pad huis toe. Baie het na Kalifornië teruggekeer nadat hulle hul besigheid in die Ooste met hul vrouens, familie en / of geliefdes gevestig het. Die meeste het die Panama- of Nicaragua-roete gebruik tot 1855 toe die voltooiing van die Panama-spoorweg die Panama-roete baie makliker, vinniger en betroubaarder gemaak het. Tussen 1849 en 1869 toe die Eerste Transkontinentale Spoorweg regoor die Verenigde State voltooi is, het ongeveer 800 000 reisigers die Panama-roete gebruik. [35] Die meeste van die ongeveer $ 50,000,000 goud wat elke jaar in Kalifornië gevind word, is via die Panama-roete na die Ooste verskeep op paddle-stoomers, muiltreine en kano's en later die Panama-spoorweg oor Panama. Na die voltooiing van die Panama-spoorweg na 1855, was die Panama-roete verreweg die vinnigste en maklikste manier om na of van Kalifornië vanaf die ooskus van die VSA of Europa te kom. Die meeste Kaliforniese handelsware het steeds die stadiger, maar goedkoper Kaapse Horn- seilskiproete gebruik. Die versinking van die roeistoomboot SS Sentraal-Amerika (die skip van goud ) in 'n orkaan op 12 September 1857 en die verlies van ongeveer $ 2 miljoen in Kalifornië-goud het indirek gelei tot die Paniek van 1857 .

Stoombootverkeer, insluitend passasiers- en vragondernemings, het eksponensieel gegroei in die dekades voor die burgeroorlog. So ook die ekonomiese en menslike verliese wat veroorsaak word deur hakke, skote, ketelontploffings en menslike foute. [36] [ bladsy benodig ]

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