Treaty of Passau - History

Treaty of Passau - History

The Holy Roman Emperor Charles V attempted to force the Protestant Princes of Southern Germany to return to Catholicism at the point of the sword. Prince Henry II of France took advantage of the situation by allying himself with the Protestants and seizing Metz, Toul and Verdun. Charles was forced to leave Germany and sign the Treaty of Passau granting the Protestants religious liberty. In 1555 the Peace Augsburg was signed, under whose terms each German prince was allowed to pick a religion for his state.

The Peace of Westphalia

On October 24, 1648, the Peace of Westphalia formally ended the Thirty Years’ War in Europe. The Peace of Westphalia consists of two different documents, the Peace Treaty of Osnabr࿌k (Instrumentum pacis Osnabrugensis)  between the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation (HRE) and Sweden, and the Peace Treaty of Münster (Instrumentum Pacis Monasteriensis)  between the HRE and France. In addition to bringing an end to the war, the peace treaties also greatly influenced the constitution of the German Empire until its dissolution in 1806. It has also been argued, although not without criticism, that the Peace of Westphalia was an important benchmark for the development of international law and international relations by bringing about a sovereignty-based international system.

“Das von süsser Friedens-Ruh schlaffend, und ﲾr heuntigen Welt- und Kriegs-Lauff Träumende Deutschland”. Print showing historical figures, scenes and symbols relating to the Thirty Years’ War. Between 1610 and 1650. Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division. //hdl.loc.gov/loc.pnp/cph.3c33278.

Historical Background

The decentralization of the Holy Roman Empire (HRE) was one of the main reasons for the outbreak of the war. The HRE had been in existence since the year 962 and covered most of Central Europe. It had a multi-ethnic and decentralized structure. The Emperor was nominally the ruler of the HRE, but the Imperial estates were largely autonomous.

Before the Protestant Reformation in the sixteenth century, Western Europe had been Roman Catholic for about 1,000 years. During the Reformation, a number of princes converted to Protestantism. Although there had been religious conflicts in the sixteenth century, the Thirty Years’ War was an extended, brutal conflict. The war began in 1618 when the Catholic Emperor, Ferdinand II, tried to enforce religious uniformity on the Empire. Swedish and French intervention soon turned it into a European conflict concerning the constitutional structure of the Holy Roman Empire, religion, and the power to rule in Europe. It was one of the most gruesome wars in European history, killing nearly 20 percent of the total population of Germany.

The Peace Treaties

The Peace Treaty of Osnabr࿌k (IPO)਌onsists of seventeen different articles, whereas the Peace Treaty of Münster (IPM) is composed of 120 sections. A lot of the IPO articles are included with identical, or almost identical, wording in the IPM, in particular the provisions on peace. In other instances, the IPM refers back to the provisions of the IPO and declares them to be of binding force. Differences between the two treaties stem from the fact that some issues were only of relevance to Sweden or France. The IPM for example contains provisions on the cessation of the dioceses and cities of Metz, Toul, and Verdun in Lorraine, Alsace, and Sundgau to France. (IPM, §§ 69-91).

The preamble and several provisions of the treaties embrace the concept of an eternal and perpetual peace. Article I of the IPO (§ 1 of the IPM) generally states the wish of the contracting parties that the peace will be universal and perpetual, whereas article II of the IPO (§ 2 of the IPM) provides for a general and perpetual amnesty for everyone who took part in the hostilities. All parties were obligated to “defend and protect all and every article of this peace against anyone, without distinction of religion.” (IPO, XVII, 5 IPM, § 115). Another way that the parties tried to guarantee a lasting peace was by stipulating in article XVII, 2 of the IPO (IPM, § 112) that the treaty should have the status of permanent binding law (perpetua lex et pragmatica imperii sanctio) and be perpetually incorporated into the constitution of the Holy Roman Empire. Both treaties were eventually inserted into the constitution in 1654. (Jüngster Reichsabschied (Recessus Imperii Novissimus) [Youngest Recess], May 17, 1654, §§ 5, 6).

Articles V and VII of the IPO deal with religious rights in the Empire (IPM, § 47). Article V states that the Treaty of Passau of 1552 and the Religious Peace of Augsburg (Augsburger Religionsfriede) of 1555 must be observed. This meant that the Catholic and Protestant (Lutherans and Calvinists) religions were recognized as equal and that the princes were allowed to choose a religion for their territory and to force their subjects to conform to their religion (cuius regio eius religio). However, Protestants living in Catholic territories were allowed to continue practicing Protestantism if they were already doing so in 1624. (IPO, art. V, 2 IPM, 47). With regard to individual religious freedom, the treaty provided that Catholics in a Protestant region and Protestants in a Catholic region were allowed to practice their religion at home, to attend religious services, and to bring up their children according to their religion. (IPO, art. V, 34 IPM, § 47). Furthermore, they were allowed to emigrate to another region in which their religion was observed within a specified time frame. (IPO, art.V, 37 IPM, § 47).

The treaties also recognized the de facto independence of the Imperial estates. They were allowed to choose the religion for their territory as mentioned above, and were allowed to enter into alliances with each other and with foreigners for their security or preservation as long as the alliances were not directed against the Emperor, the Empire, the public peace, or the terms of the Westphalian Peace Treaties. (IPO, art.VIII, 2 IPM, § 63).

Further Reading

If you would like to know more about the Peace of Westphalia, the Thirty Years’ War, or German history in general, please consult the resources available at the Library of Congress. A selection can be found below:

  • Repgen, Konrad, Dreissigjähriger Krieg und Westfälischer Friede : Studien und Quellen , 3rd ed. 2015.
  • Croxton, Derek, Westphalia : the Last Christian Peace,�.
  • Guthrie, William P., The Later Thirty Years War : from the Battle of Wittstock to the Treaty of Westphalia, 2003.
  • Max Braubach & Konrad Repgen (eds.), Acta Pacis Westphalicae,�-2013.
  • Dickmann, Fritz, Der Westfälische Frieden,�.
  • Barraclough, Geoffrey, The Origins of Modern Germany, 1946.
  • Bewes, Wyndham Anstis, Gathered Notes on the Peace of Westphalia of 1648, 1934.

2 Comments

Good note, but shouldn’t we correct the record?
“Rather than the famous “Westphalian Order” emerging from the Treaty under that name and putting an end to the thirty-year wars of religion in Europe in 1648, the enduring system of nation-states rests more solidly on the foundations of the European peace that was conceived in Utrecht.”

Kudos to this website and all the hands on deck to make it a better place for us students. Aa. God bless you.

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Peace of Passau

Holy Roman Emperor Charles V had won a victory against Protestantism in the Schmalkaldic War of 1547. Many Protestant princes were unhappy with the religious terms of the Augsburg Interim imposed after this victory. In January 1552, led by Maurice of Saxony, many formed an alliance with Henry II of France at the Treaty of Chambord. In return for French funding and assistance, Henry was promised lands in western Germany. In the ensuing Princes' War, Charles was driven out of Germany into Italy by the Protestant alliance, while Henry captured the fortresses of Metz, Verdun and Toul.

In August 1552, weary from three decades of religious civil war, Charles guaranteed Lutheran religious freedoms in the Peace of Passau. The implementation of the Augsburg Interim was cancelled. The Protestant princes taken prisoner during the Schmalkaldic War, John Frederick of Saxony and Philip of Hesse, were released. [ 1 ] A precursor to the Peace of Augsburg of September, 1555, the Peace of Passau effectively surrendered Charles V's lifelong quest for European religious unity. [ 2 ]


Bible Encyclopedias

Passau

    1911 Encyclopedia Britannica
    McClintock and Strong's Bible Encyclopedia
    The Nuttall Encyclopedia
    The Catholic Encyclopedia
    The Jewish Encyclopedia

a picturesque fortified frontier town of Bavaria, containing 15,583 people, and situated at the confluence of the Inn and the Ilz with the Danube, ninety miles east-north-east of Munich, and rising like an amphitheatre on the most beautiful spot of the Danube, is strikingly effective and picturesque. The place is especially celebrated in Protestant Church history, for it was here that the treaty of Passau was signed Aug. 2, 1552, by the emperor Charles V on the one side and the Protestant princes of Germany on the other, giving public recognition to the Lutheran faith as among the ecclesiastical institutions of the empire. Among the chief buildings are the cathedral, the bishop's palace, the post-office (where the treaty of Passau was signed in 1552) the Jesuits' College, a large building now used as at school and the church of St. Michael's. In the Cathedral Square (Domplatz) is a bronze statue of king Maximilian Joseph, of recent erection. Passau contains also numerous picture-galleries, collections of antiquities, and benevolent and charitable institutions. The natural advantages of this site, in a military point of view, were appreciated at an early period by the Romans, who erected a strong camp here, garrisoned it with Batavian troops, and from this circumstance named it Batava Castra. Passau was long the seat of a bishopric founded in the 7th century, but secularized in 1803. The cathedral of Passau and great part of the town were. consumed by fire in 1662. During the Reformation period many advocates of the new cause flourished in Passau, but the Jesuits of Vienna, who in 1612 succeeded in establishing a college at Passau, used all means at their command to reinstate Romanism at this place in its wonted glory and power, and they succeeded so well that the Protestant fold has been reduced to a mere trifle. See Spieker, Gesch. des Augsburger Religions friedens (Schlitz, 1854) Ranke, Reformationsgesch. vol. vii Soames, Hist. of the Ref 3:747 Hefele, Conciliengesch. v. 26 sq. Fisher, Hist. of the Ref. p. 167 Gieseler, Eccles. Hist. 4:206. (See PROTESTANTISM) (See REFORMATION).


Main sights [ edit | edit source ]

Tourism in Passau focuses mainly on the three rivers, the St. Stephen's Cathedral (Der Passauer Stephansdom) and the "Old City" (Die Altstadt). With 17,774 pipes and 233 registers, ⎗] the organ at St. Stephen's was long held to be the largest church pipe organ in the world and is today second in size only to the organ at First Congregational Church, Los Angeles, which was expanded in 1994. Organ concerts are held daily between May and September. St.Stephen's is a true masterpiece of Italian Baroque, built by Italian architect Carlo Lurago and decorated in part by Carpoforo Tencalla. Many river cruises down the Danube start at Passau and there is a cycling path all the way down to Vienna. It is also notable for its gothic and baroque architecture. The town is dominated by the Veste Oberhaus and the former fortress of the Bishop, on the mountain crest between the Danube and the Ilz rivers. Right beside the town hall is the Scharfrichterhaus, an important jazz and cabaret stage on which political cabaret is performed.

Passau from the Veste Oberhaus. In front the Danube River

Passau from the South. In front the Inn River


Treaty of Passau

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PASSAU

PASSAU , city in Bavaria, Germany. Jews are mentioned in an early tenth-century local customs regulation (Raffelsteten). Documentary evidence for their presence in the city of Passau, however, dates only from 1210, when Bishop Mangold compensated the Jews of the city after they had been robbed. In 1206 they were released from paying customs and taxes in return for their aid in helping the bishop collect his tithes. They earned their livelihood in moneylending. A Judenstrasse is first mentioned in 1328, a synagogue in 1314, and a cemetery in 1418. (Before 1418 Jews were buried in Regensburg.) The Black *Death persecutions of 1349 caused considerable loss to the community, but Jews were again resident in Passau in 1390. In March 1478 a petty thief "confessed" to having stolen and sold the Host to Jews. On being tortured, 10 Jews confessed to having stabbed the Host and caused its blood to flow. All (including the witness) were sentenced to death. Concomitantly approximately 40 Jews accepted Christianity while the rest were expelled the synagogue and Jewish homes were demolished. A church erected on the site became the object of pilgrimages. Small numbers of Jews were permitted to reside in Passau in later centuries. The Jewish settlement reached 73 in 1910 48 in 1932 and 40 in 1933, and was affiliated with the Straubing community. In 1968 there were 13 Jews recorded as residents of Passau.


Passau - Encyclopedia

PASSAU, a town and episcopal see of Germany, in the kingdom of Bavaria, picturesquely situated at the confluence of the Danube, the Inn and the Ilz, close to the Austrian frontier, 89 m. N.E. from Munich and 74 S.E. of Regensburg by rail. Pop. (1900), 18,003, nearly all being Roman Catholics. Passau consists of the town proper, lying on the rocky tongue of land between the Danube and the Inn, and of four suburbs, Innstadt on the right bank of the Inn, Iizstadt on the left bank of the Ilz, Anger in the angle between Ilz and the Danube, and St Nikola. It is one of the most beautiful places on the Danube, a fine effect being produced by the way in which the houses are piled up one above another on the heights rising from the river. The best general view is obtained from the Oberhaus, an old fortress, now used as a prison, which crowns a hill 300 ft. high on the left bank of the Danube. Of the eleven churches, the most interesting is the cathedral of St Stephen, a florid, rococo edifice. It was built after a fire in the 17th century on the site of a church said to have been founded in the 5th century it has two towers, and contains some valuable relics. Other churches are the Gothic church of the Holy Ghost the churches of St Severin, of St Paul and of St Gertrude the double church of St Salvator the Romanesque church of the Holy Cross the pilgrimage church of Our Lady of Succour (Mariahilf) the church of the hospital of St John and the Romanesque Votiv Kirche. The post office occupies the site of a building in which in 1552 the Treaty of Passau was signed between the emperor Charles V. and Maurice, elector of Saxony. The fine Dom Platz contains a statue of the Bavarian king, Maximilian I. The old forts and bastions of the city have been demolished, but the two linked fortresses, the Oberhaus and the Niederhaus, are still extant. The former was built early in the 13th century by the bishop in consequence of a revolt on the part of the citizens the latter, mentioned as early as 737, is now private property. The chief industries are the manufacture of tobacco, beer, leather, porcelain, machinery and paper. Large quantities of timber are floated down the Ilz. The well-known Passau crucibles are made at the neighbouring village of Obernzell.

Passau is of ancient origin. The first settlement was probably a Celtic one, Boiudurum this was on the site of the present Innstadt. Afterwards the Romans established a colony of Batavian veterans, the castra batava here. It received civic rights in 1225, and soon became a prosperous place, but much of its history consists of broils between the bishops and the citizens. The strong fortress of the Oberhaus was taken by the Austrians in 1742, and again in 1805. The bishopric of Passau was founded by St Boniface in 738. The diocese was a large one, including until 1468 not only much of Bavaria, but practically the whole of the archduchy of Austria. About 1260 the bishop became a prince of the empire. Amongst the earlier bishops was Pilgrin or Piligrim (d. 991), and among the later ones were the Austrian archdukes, Leopold and Leopold William, the former a brother and the latter a son of the emperor Ferdinand II. In 1803 the bishopric was secularized, and in 1805 its lands came into the possession of Bavaria. The area, which was diminished in the 15th, and again in the 18th century, was then about 350 sq. m., and the population about 50,000. A new bishopric of Passau, with ecclesiastical jurisdiction only, was established in 1817.

See Erhart, Geschichte der Stadt Passau (Passau, 1862-1864) and Morin, Passau (1878). For the history of the bishopric see Scholler,. Die Bischofe von Passau (Passau, 1844) and Schrodl, Passavia sacra. Geschichte des Bistums Passau (Passau, 1879).

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External links

  • Official website (German)
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  • Passau Cathedral, which is famous for its organ with 17774 pipes and 233 registers - the biggest church organ on Earth - Zoomable map and satellite overview (Google Maps).
  • First stop for new arrivals in Germany: bureaucracy (My Way news, September 16th, 2015)
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Bible Encyclopedias

a town and episcopal see of Germany, in the kingdom of Bavaria, picturesquely situated at the confluence of the Danube, the Inn and the Ilz, close to the Austrian frontier, 89 m. N.E. from Munich and 74 S.E. of Regensburg by rail. Pop. (1900), 18,003, nearly all being Roman Catholics. Passau consists of the town proper, lying on the rocky tongue of land between the Danube and the Inn, and of four suburbs, Innstadt on the right bank of the Inn, Iizstadt on the left bank of the Ilz, Anger in the angle between Ilz and the Danube, and St Nikola. It is one of the most beautiful places on the Danube, a fine effect being produced by the way in which the houses are piled up one above another on the heights rising from the river. The best general view is obtained from the Oberhaus, an old fortress, now used as a prison, which crowns a hill 300 ft. high on the left bank of the Danube. Of the eleven churches, the most interesting is the cathedral of St Stephen, a florid, rococo edifice. It was built after a fire in the 17th century on the site of a church said to have been founded in the 5th century it has two towers, and contains some valuable relics. Other churches are the Gothic church of the Holy Ghost the churches of St Severin, of St Paul and of St Gertrude the double church of St Salvator the Romanesque church of the Holy Cross the pilgrimage church of Our Lady of Succour (Mariahilf) the church of the hospital of St John and the Romanesque Votiv Kirche. The post office occupies the site of a building in which in 1552 the Treaty of Passau was signed between the emperor Charles V. and Maurice, elector of Saxony. The fine Dom Platz contains a statue of the Bavarian king, Maximilian I. The old forts and bastions of the city have been demolished, but the two linked fortresses, the Oberhaus and the Niederhaus, are still extant. The former was built early in the 13th century by the bishop in consequence of a revolt on the part of the citizens the latter, mentioned as early as 737, is now private property. The chief industries are the manufacture of tobacco, beer, leather, porcelain, machinery and paper. Large quantities of timber are floated down the Ilz. The well-known Passau crucibles are made at the neighbouring village of Obernzell.

Passau is of ancient origin. The first settlement was probably a Celtic one, Boiudurum this was on the site of the present Innstadt. Afterwards the Romans established a colony of Batavian veterans, the castra batava here. It received civic rights in 1225, and soon became a prosperous place, but much of its history consists of broils between the bishops and the citizens. The strong fortress of the Oberhaus was taken by the Austrians in 1742, and again in 1805. The bishopric of Passau was founded by St Boniface in 738. The diocese was a large one, including until 1468 not only much of Bavaria, but practically the whole of the archduchy of Austria. About 1260 the bishop became a prince of the empire. Amongst the earlier bishops was Pilgrin or Piligrim (d. 991), and among the later ones were the Austrian archdukes, Leopold and Leopold William, the former a brother and the latter a son of the emperor Ferdinand II. In 1803 the bishopric was secularized, and in 1805 its lands came into the possession of Bavaria. The area, which was diminished in the 15th, and again in the 18th century, was then about 350 sq. m., and the population about 50,000. A new bishopric of Passau, with ecclesiastical jurisdiction only, was established in 1817.

See Erhart, Geschichte der Stadt Passau (Passau, 1862-1864) and Morin, Passau (1878). For the history of the bishopric see Scholler,. Die Bischofe von Passau (Passau, 1844) and Schrodl, Passavia sacra. Geschichte des Bistums Passau (Passau, 1879).