Door of The Temple of Divus Romulus

Door of The Temple of Divus Romulus


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Temple of Romulus in the Roman Forum

Located in the archaeological area of the Roman Forum, the Temple of Romulus stands between the Temple of Antoninus and Faustina and the Basilica of Maxentius and Constantine. Despite the name, we know for sure that the temple was not named after the legendary founder and first king of Rome, Romulus. There’s actually an ongoing debated among historians and archaeologists around the origin of the temple and who it was dedicated to.

Credits: image by @Roma_Wonder
Location: in the Roman Forum
Tickets: Free to visit from Via Dei Fori Imperiali / Tickets needed from the Roman Forum
Accessibility: Partially Accessible
Kid-friendly Attraction

Doors - The Roman Originals

Ah, Rome. Once the glittering heart of an empire that ruled most everything worth having. But if Augustus famously found the city to be made of brick and left it made of marble, the decline and fall of Rome left it little more than a pile of rubble.

When we speak of the Sack of Rome it was actually not a single event. The Goth's plundered it in 410 AD, mostly carting off gold, silver and other luxury goods such as pepper and silk. The Vandals had their turn in 455, this time hauling away pretty much everything that could be moved. The Goths had another go at it in 456 but there was not much worthwhile left by then.

And actually there were later depredations that bear upon today's topic. The Byzantine Emperor Constans in 663 spent twelve days stripping away any metal he could find including the bronze roof tiles of the Pantheon. Pope Urban VIII performed a later bit of plunder circa 1600 when he had the bronze ceiling of the Pantheon's portico melted down to make cannon for Castle San Angelo!

All these thefts over time, and one can be certain that there were far many that have escaped the eye of history, pretty much stripped Rome of everything metal. But remarkably there are still - persisting from ancient times - a few sets of massive bronze doors yet to be seen.

The complex of buildings that is San Giovanni in Laterano has a couple of specimens that I did not, on this trip, have time to see. The main basilica has a pair of doors that came from the Curia, the building in the Roman Forum where the Senate used to meet. (Technically these were from a Diocletian era Curia where the Senate was a powerless anachronism). And the Baptistry has an ancient door that is said to have come from The Baths of Caracalla.

But if you want original Roman doors in their original locations, I think there are only two sites to visit and I got to both of them. (note that each has a minor "asterisk" next to this claim)

Here we have one of the two double doors to the Pantheon. Bronze, 20 tons each, they once had a thin coat of gold on them. These are generally, but not universally, felt to be from the third "Hadrianic" version of the Pantheon, so circa 125 AD. A dissenting viewpoint is that the current door frame is not the original size, and that these doors are 15th century copies of the originals.

There is something about nice smooth bronze that makes it the most gracefully ageing of all metals!

Of course everyone knows about the Pantheon. To find the other set of "original" and in situ Roman doors we need to go down into the Forum. Here we have a structure that goes by the common name of The Temple of Divus Romulus.

The identification is pesky on this one. The Romulus mentioned was the infant son of Maxentius, last of the great Pagan Emperors. Romulus died in 309 AD. But the location of this Temple is where a much older structure should be. This may in fact be the location of the Temple of Jupiter Stator, which Maxentius might have rebuilt or renovated, then dedicated or rededicated to his lost son. Stator by the way is the personification of Jupiter in his role as He who gives wavering armies strength and courage. Or if you prefer, Stability. The Temple of Jupiter Stator was 8th century BC in its origins, said to have been built by Romulus himself. And Maxentius was very eager to associate himself and his family with the traditional Roman virtues.

The identification of this structure with Romulus, son of Maxentius, is partly based on coin evidence. Here is an example, one of several designs extant. I like this one. It has an allegorical eagle ascending to heaven (or whatever the pagans preferred) and even shows the doors of the Temple.

And here is the Temple in 2015. The pink columns are later additions.

Nice doors, but not as large or fancy as the Pantheon. They seem to have been installed here after being removed from an unknown building of Severan date, circa 200 AD.

But, if not as posh, these doors have something else that is very special. The original lock! Said to still be functional. I wonder, is this the oldest lock still in use? I am thinking yes, where in fact could you find an older one?*

----------
* maybe on Egyptian grave goods? They had locks earlier than this, but I don't think a locked chest or internal door in a tomb quite qualifies as continuous use.


Thread: The Temple of Romulus

This image isn't as good a composition as I would like but I was entranced by the Green Door. In doing some research I found the following:

One of the most amazing things about the Temple of Romulus is the door. This is not just a green door, or even a green bronze door. This door dates from the late Imperial Age and is therefore almost 1,700 years old. To have survived intact for so long and through so much is almost unprecedented. This is one special door.

But enough about the door, what about the rest of the building? It is situated in the Roman Forum next to the Temple of Antonius and Faustina, and dates from the early 4C. Originally it was thought that this was dedicated to Emperor Romulus who died in 307. Recently it has also been suggested that the building may have been associated with the Temple of Jupiter or the audience hall of a city prefect.

Maxentius bagan building the Temple of Romulus, and it was completed by Constantine. That is in such good condition is thanks in part to the fact that in the Middle Ages it was incorporated into the atrium of the church of St. Cosma and St. Damiano. Inside the church is a 6C mosaic showing Jesus Christ surrounded by several saints at his second coming. The rest of the church has taken over the Forum Pacis built by Emperor Nerva.

Although not a great image, I hope you can enjoy the history and siginificance of the Green Door.


Temple of Caesar

The temple was initially conceived of as a heroon for the murdered C. Iulius Caesar. During the extension of the Forum under Augustus, the temple developed more and more into the primary structure for the self-representation of the new Julian dynasty and the first Emperor of Rome.

The temple was built in the wake of the cremation of Caesar’s corpse, a few days after his murder on the 15 th March 44 B.C. (Ides of March). Following Marc Antony’s funeral speech on the Forum, the distraught populus spontaneously decided to burn Caesar’s body on the east side of the Forum in front of the Regia. Shortly afterwards, Caesar’s supporters erected an altar and a column there, intending it to become a site for the ritual worship of Caesar. This cult site quickly developed into a political issue: the people who had wanted Caesar’s death – among them Dolabella, the new consul in 44 B.C. – tore down the altar and column shortly thereafter. The populus as well as Caesar’s veterans demanded that the cult site be rebuilt. The triumvirs Marc Anthony, Octavian (later Augustus) and Lepidius, who saw themselves as the political heirs to Caesar’s empire, were keen to support this cause. In 42 B.C. Caesar was deified by the Senate and it was decided that a temple would be built on the location of the altar.

The temple was completed and inaugurated many years later, after Octavian had prevailed over Marcy Antony and Cleopatra at Actium in 31 B.C. and secured his place as sole ruler. The temple was inaugurated directly after his triple triumph, on August 18 th 29 B.C. The towering temple occupied the middle part of the eastern edge of the Forum and formed its new eastern boundary.

Ideological significance

At the time of its inauguration, the temple’s earlier significance for Augustus (Octavian’s new name as of 27 B.C.) was strongly diminished. At the start of Octavian’s political career, when he was still standing in Marc Antony’s shadow, it was immensely important for his later success that he associate himself with his deified adoptive father Caesar and portray himself as Caesar’s legitimate successor and son (divus filius). Within this context, the purpose of the temple of the divus Iulius on the Forum was to send a striking visual message to ground his claim to power. However, after Octavian had established his sole rule through his victory at Actium, it became increasingly less important to associate himself with Caesar and increasingly more important to showcase his own military victories. Accordingly, the temple’s purpose changed after its inauguration: Augustus ordered that some of the spoils from his victories be consecrated in the temple and thereby transformed the structure into a monument of his own personal victory. An especially prominent role was assigned to the prows of the ships defeated at Actium, now displayed on the front of the base of the podium. This arrangement mirrored the appearance of the Rostra Augusti at the west side of the Forum: just as the naval rams on the Rostra Augusti symbolised the victory at Antium in the middle of the 4 th century B.C., the rams at the Temple of Caesar symbolised Augustus’ latest victory – which thereby joined the ranks of other outstanding victories for Rome.

From that time on, the temple’s function was ambiguous. On the one hand, it served as the cult site for worshipping the deified Caesar on the other, it was a monument to a military victory of the new Princeps Augustus, and perpetuated his political claim to power on the Forum. A speaker’s platform was erected in front of the temple, from which the people were addressed on a variety of different occasions. Thus the structure evolved into the counterpart of the Rostra Augusti, the “real” speaker’s platform, which was located on the west side of the Forum. The fact that the temple was used as an alternative place to give public speeches underlines that the new ruling dynasty of the Iulii lay claim to the Forum as a space of political representation.

Architecture

The extravagant architectural construction of the temple supported the political and representational message that the structure was intended to send. Admittedly the temple was only moderate in size this was due to the relatively small area on which it was built, the only available area located at the east side of the Forum at the time. However, the temple was successfully elevated through a two-storey podium substructure. Six columns decorated the front of the temple. The narrow placement of the columns contributed to the overall impression of a towering structure. The temple was lavishly embellished with marble. Stairs on the long sides led up to the first level of the podium, whence further stairs (situated in the middle) led up to the actual temple. On the front side of the lower podium was a semicircular niche containing the old altar of the former cult site from 44 B.C. It is telling that the niche was blocked off at a later time (probably during Augustus’ reign) and the altar was relocated to the podium (for the individual phases, see below).

Only very little of the magnificent architecture of the temple has survived. The most important extant feature is a tripartite core from the base of the structure, composed of opus caementicium. The upper architecture has been lost in its entirety, with the exception of a small number of fragments from the marble facing. Because the negative image of the caementicium core reveals the configuration of the supporting walls, the appearance of the temple can be reconstructed to a large extent – based also on the architectural fragments and literary sources (for images of the present-day ruin, see below).


Temple of Jupiter Stator in Palatio


The legend tells that the temple was built by Romulus near the Porta Mugonia, at the point where he vowed honoring Jupiter with an aedes if he had "stopped" the retreat of the Romans who were retreating inside the walls pressed by the Sabines:

Hic ego tibi Templum Statori Iovi … voveo

According to the legend, Jupiter placed himself firmly in front of the enemy outside the door Mugonia, this infused new courage to people of Romulus who validly withstood the enemies and managed to repulse the attack and then continue the battle that, according to legend, was then interrupted by Ersilia and other sabine women now wives of the Romans.
To comply with the vow he had made Romulus built a fanum outside the walls of his Roma, had to be consecrated area with an altar and an archaic votive well Atilius Regulus will then build a temple in 294 BC when at the Battle of Lucera, during the third Samnite war, he invoked the intervention of Jupiter Stator to stop their soldiers frightened by the enemy, they had begun to escape from the battlefield and so he voted for the construction of the temple in the place of the altar Romulus.
The rebuilding of the Temple by Atilius Regulus was very important because of Romulus fanum was transformed into a beautiful and broad aedes which stood on the same site and had to be really great because in 207 BC met there ter novanae virgines to sing a poem composed by Livius Andronicus not only, but Cicero did convene the Senate there to denounce the conspiracy of Catiline.
According to Plutarch, Cicero called the meeting of the Senate in the Temple of Jupiter Stator, which therefore was able to contain as many as 300 people and delivered you the first Catilinaria whose famous incipit is:

Quo usque tandem abutere, Catilina, patientia nostra?
As long as you mean to abuse, or Catiline, our patience?

And that ended with a prayer to Jupiter Stator so that help the citizens of Rome to stop him.
Another famous event which took place in the temple was the auction for the sale of confiscated property to Pompey after his death at auction no one dared to bid, only Mark Anthony made its and acquired ownership of all the houses and goods of Pompey. Some historians have suggested that behind the offer there was actually Julius Caesar, a possibility which seems to be confirmed by the fact that Mark Anthony never went to live in any of the homes of Pompey, then with Octavian passed in imperial state property.
The Temple was in Summa Via Sacra, and, as Pliny (Naturalis Historia) tells citing Annius Fetiale, just in front of the temple stood the domus Tarquinii in which porch was a statue of Clelia, one of the Roman heroines, at horseback.
The temple, given its position, was badly damaged by fire in 64 d.C . from what emerged in the excavations conducted in the nineteenth century already and the more recent ones, it seems to have been rebuilt on the same site, fact that leads its displacement at Velia on the other side of the Via Sacra, to another cause and it was the Temple constructed on the Velia that to be reported in Regionari Catalogs. Rebuilt on the opposite side of the Via Sacra, of the new temple will have no precise guidelines to locate him, but for some time now has been reconsidered the identification of the circular temple known as "Mausoleum of the deified Romulus" or a wing of the Temple of Peace that Maxentius did readjust as aedes for her son who died adolescent and consecrated Divus according to some researchers after the fall of Maxentius was defeated by Constantine, the temple would be re-dedicated to Jupiter Stator restoring the cult that had been forgotten in the previous century .


Building description

The temple, which was uncovered in 1872 and re-examined archaeologically in 1888, 1898/99 and 1950, has been largely destroyed because this area was used as a quarry in the Renaissance and Baroque periods . Only the three mighty cores of the temple podium made of opus caementicium , the ancient concrete, have been preserved. Only a few marble structural elements of the rising architecture have been preserved, the wall foundations were robbed down to the lowest layers. In combination with written records and the evidence of the coin images, the temple can be largely reconstructed.

The caementicium cores were originally covered with tuff blocks, which in turn were covered with marble slabs. In the area of ​​the pillars and the cella front wall, the foundation blocks were made of travertine .

The western caementicium core was approximately 16.80 meters wide, 6.30 meters deep and 3.30 meters high. The adjoining cores had a height of about 5.50 meters and a width of 14.50. The middle core carrying the pronaos had a depth of about 7.90 meters. The eastern core bearing the cella was about 6.20 meters deep. A separate, small cement base between the pronaos and cello foundations carried the almost 4 meter wide door threshold.

Since the western core was not deep enough to accommodate a staircase to the approximately 2.20 meter higher central core, some of the steps must have been between the front pillars. The front pillars therefore stood on pedestals in this area. According to Vitruvius (III 3.2) the temple was a pycnostylus , that is, the clear distance between its columns, the intercolumnium , corresponded to 1.5 times the lower column diameter. Judging by the width of the stone foundation, six columns divided the temple front. The narrow sides of the pronao, on the other hand, offered space for three columns or protruding anteens . A decision cannot be made.

Contrary to earlier assumptions that the temple was of Ionic order , research since the discovery of a Corinthian chapter fragment in post-excavations in 1950 has predominantly assumed that the temple was completely Corinthian . This was already clear in advance for pilasters and ante arrangements of the temple because of the numerous corresponding capital fragments. The temple's architrave and frieze are not preserved. The fragments and panels of a frieze of vine women that are connected to the temple cannot be connected to the exterior of the building because of their low height. Rather, they seem to have been part of the interior decoration or podium cladding. Geison and Sima , on the other hand, have been preserved in numerous blocks and fragments that are still in ruins today. The temple therefore had a console frame with flat consoles, mediated by a tooth cut . Between the consoles there are depictions in flat relief, mostly depicting rosettes, but also a laurel wreath , grapes, a palmette , a patera and a shield. Most of these motifs can be directly connected with the person of Caesar, for example the laurel wreath, which he was given the right to wear at any time after the victory of Munda. The grape can be related to the reintroduction of the Liber cult in Rome by Caesar.

A cement base on the northern cellapodium is evidence of the interior of the temple. It is about 1.10 meters high, 3.30 meters wide and 0.90 meters deep. Presumably this pedestal, for which a counterpart on the south side can be assumed, carried a small aedicule . The aedicules to be reconstructed probably contained the works of art donated by Augustus to the temple, including a painting by Apelles that depicted Aphrodite Anadyomene ( Strabon , XIV 2.19). The cult image depicted Caesar with a star, the Sidus Iulium , over his forehead.


Valerius Romulus

Valerius Romulus, also Marcus Aurelius Romulus (died 309) was the son of the Caesar and later usurper Maxentius and of Valeria Maximilla, daughter of Emperor Galerius. Through his father, he was also grandson of Maximian the Tetrarch, whom he predeceased.

Valerius bore the title clarissimus puer in his youth, and later nobilissimus vir. He was consul with his father in 308 and 309 the fact that Maxentius was the only consul for year 310 suggests that Valerius died in 309. He was buried in a tomb along the Via Appia. [1] After death, his status was raised to Divus and his father dedicated the Temple of Divus Romulus to him along the Via Sacra near the Roman Forum. Also, a series of commemorative coins was issued in his name, showing a domed shrine with one of the doors ajar, and an eagle on top. [2]


Temple of Romulus - Roman Forum

This photo of the Temple of Romulus is part of one of the panoramic images found on the PanoramicEarth.com Tour of Rome . There are over 100 images taken from around Rome linked to an interactive map.

One of the most amazing things about the Temple of Romulus is the door. This is not just a green door, or even a green bronze door. This door dates from the late Imperial Age and is therefore almost 1,700 years old. To have survived intact for so long and through so much is almost unprecedented. This is one special door.

But enough about the door, what about the rest of the building? It is situated in the Roman Forum next to the Temple of Antonius and Faustina, and dates from the early 4C. Originally it was thought that this was dedicated to Emperor Romulus who died in 307. Recently it has also been suggested that the building may have been associated with the Temple of Jupiter or the audience hall of a city prefect.

Maxentius bagan building the Temple of Romulus , and it was completed by Constantine . That is in such good condition is thanks in part to the fact that in the Middle Ages it was incorporated into the atrium of the church of St. Cosma and St. Damiano. Inside the church is a 6C mosaic showing Jesus Christ surrounded by several saints at his second coming. The rest of the church has taken over the Forum Pacis built by Emperor Nerva.

Full panoramic images from the Roman Forum are found on the Rome tour by PanoramicEarth.com. An enlargement of this photo can be found on Flickr.

For more articles on Rome see the Rome Index or select one of the labels at the bottom.


Door of The Temple of Divus Romulus - History

The Forum, Colosseum, Arch of Titus, Palatine Hill, Pantheon, Mamertine Prison, Circus Maximus, Vatican, Tiber River, St. Paul’s Outside the Walls, and Ostia.

New images in free bonus download of Arch of Titus (31 images), Colosseum (3 images), Mamertine Prison (40 images), and Ostia (345 images), and the Pantheon (7 images).

All images are high-resolution jpg files (1600 x 1200 or higher). Ideal for projecting in a classroom, viewing on a monitor or printing. Also included on each DVD are pre-made PowerPoint presentations for each region (with photograph annotations), maps for site identification, an image index, and a site index.

Index of Photographs on this DVD

Arch of Titus (18)
Arch of Titus at night, tb112002216
Arch of Titus ceiling with Titus and eagle, tb011901607
Arch of Titus ceiling with Titus and eagle, tb112105069
Arch of Titus from below, tb012001609
Arch of Titus from Colosseum, tb112002217
Arch of Titus from north, tb112102218
Arch of Titus from northwest, tb012001606
Arch of Titus horse scene left, tb112002221
Arch of Titus horse scene right, tb112002222
Arch of Titus horse scene, tb112002223
Arch of Titus inscription, tb112105084
Arch of Titus Temple treasures scene left, tb112105077
Arch of Titus Temple treasures scene right, tb112002225
Arch of Titus Temple treasures scene, tb112105065
Arch of Titus Temple treasures scene, tb112105076
Arch of Titus, tb112105061
Arch of Titus, tb112105086
Arches of Constantine and Titus from Colosseum, tb112002228

Basilicas of Rome (27)
Apse by St Giovanni in Lateran Cathedral, tb112102205
Basilica of St Cosma, Damiano, 6th c mosaics, tb112102236
Basilica of St Cosma, Damiano, 6th c mosaics, tb112102237
Basilica of St Cosma, Damiano, 6th c mosaics, tb112102238
Jesus and Mary on cross at St Mary of Maggiore Basilica, tb112102309
Jesus and Mary on cross at St Mary of Maggiore Basilica, tb112102310
Michelangelo’s Moses, tb111905196
Michelangelo’s Moses, tb111905215
Michelangelo’s Moses, tb111905222
Paul’s beheading carving, 3 Fountains Church, wk030702415
Peter crucified upside down, 3 Fountains Church, wk030702417
St Croce in Jerusalem Church ceiling painting, tb112102439
St Croce in Jerusalem Church facade, tb112102440
St Croce in Jerusalem Church interior, tb112102441
St Giovanni in Lateran Cathedral entrance door, tb112102321
St Giovanni in Lateran Cathedral facade statues, tb112102442
St Giovanni in Lateran Cathedral facade, tb112102443
St Giovanni in Lateran Cathedral interior2 tb112102444
St Mary of Maggiore Basilica body of Pope, tb112102446
St Mary of Maggiore Basilica facade, tb112105941
St Mary of Maggiore Basilica interior, tb112102447
St Mary of Maggiore Basilica obelisk, tb112105943
St Mary of Maggiore Basilica priests at mass, tb112102448
St Mary of Maggiore Basilica sacristry with octagonal church, tb112102322
St Mary of Maggiore Basilica, Jesus crowning Mary, tb112102323
St Mary of Maggiore Basilica, tb011901738
St Peter in Vincoli Basilica, tb111905228

Church of St Paul Outside the Walls (37)
Painting of Paul bitten by snake on Malta in St Paul’s Outside the Walls, tb011901698
Paul holding sword and book statue, wk030702414
St Paul Outside the Walls aisle inside, tb011901739
St Paul Outside the Walls aisle, tb111902451
St Paul Outside the Walls altar, tb111902452
St Paul Outside the Walls bell tower, tb111902454
St Paul Outside the Walls cloister courtyard, tb111902455
St Paul Outside the Walls colonnade, tb111902456
St Paul Outside the Walls courtyard, tb111902457
St Paul Outside the Walls door, tb111902459
St Paul Outside the Walls door, tb111902460
St Paul Outside the Walls exterior, tb111902462
St Paul Outside the Walls exterior, tb111902463
St Paul Outside the Walls exterior, tb111902464
St Paul Outside the Walls holy door bottom, tb011901744
St Paul Outside the Walls holy door middle, tb111902465
St Paul Outside the Walls holy door scenes, tb011901745
St Paul Outside the Walls holy door top, tb111902466
St Paul Outside the Walls mosaic facade, tb011901746
St Paul Outside the Walls nave, tb011901747
St Paul Outside the Walls Paul’s chain, tb011901748
St Paul Outside the Walls relics, tb011901749
St Paul Outside the Walls relics, tb111902467
St Paul Outside the Walls reliquarium, tb111902468
St Paul Outside the Walls sarcophagus, tb111902469
St Paul Outside the Walls statue of Paul, tb111902470
St Paul Outside the Walls statue of Paul, tb111902471
St Paul Outside the Walls statue of Peter, tb111902472
St Paul Outside the Walls, tb111902473
St Paul’s Outside the Walls aisle, tb011901740
St Paul’s Outside the Walls door scene of beheading of Paul, tb111902453
St Paul’s Outside the Walls door scene of crucifixion of Peter, tb111902458
St Paul’s Outside the Walls door scene of Jesus appearing to Paul, tb111902311
St Paul’s Outside the Walls door scenes, tb011901741
St Paul’s Outside the Walls door scenes, tb011901742
St Paul’s Outside the Walls door scenes, tb011901743
St Paul’s Outside the Walls Easter candle, 12th c, tb111902461

Circus Maximus (12)
Circus Maximus eastern end, tb012001612
Circus Maximus eastern seats preserved, tb012001613
Circus Maximus from east, tb012001614
Circus Maximus from east, tb112002249
Circus Maximus from north, tb112002250
Circus Maximus from Palatine Hill, tb112002251
Circus Maximus from southeast, tb012001615
Circus Maximus from southeast, tb012001616
Circus Maximus from southwest, tb012001617
Circus Maximus from west, tb012001618
Palatine Hill from Circus Maximus, tb112002394
Rome view southwest from Palatine Hill, tb112002433

Colosseum (28)
Colosseum arena, tb112002270
Colosseum at night from below, tb112002260
Colosseum at night with full moon, tb112002261
Colosseum at night, tb111805170
Colosseum at night, tb111805192
Colosseum at night, tb112002262
Colosseum at night, wk031002263
Colosseum at night, wk031002264
Colosseum DMV Basilius Inscription with mistake, tb112002265
Colosseum Door of Death, tb011801619
Colosseum exterior arches showing construction, tb112002266
Colosseum exterior lowest level arch, tb112002267
Colosseum exterior second level arch, tb112002268
Colosseum exterior third level arch, tb112002269
Colosseum from Arch of Titus, tb011801620
Colosseum from east, tb112002271
Colosseum from northwest, tb011701622
Colosseum from west, tb112105088
Colosseum from west, tb112105089
Colosseum from west, tb112105101
Colosseum interior panorama, tb112002274
Colosseum interior panorama, tb112002275
Colosseum interior reconstructed seats, tb112002277
Colosseum interior seating base and arches, tb112002278
Colosseum interior seating base, tb112002279
Colosseum interior seating, tb112002280
Colosseum interior, tb112002282
Colosseum interior, tb112002283

Forum (101)
Ancient street near Julia Curia, tb112102203
Arch of Augustus remains, tb112105037
Arch of Constantine from east, tb112105090
Arch of Constantine from north, tb112002209
Arch of Septimius Severus with Mamertine Prison, tb011901603
Arch of Severus and Julia Curia, tb112102210
Arch of Severus and Temple of Saturn, tb012001605
Arch of Severus at night, tb112102211
Arch of Severus from north, tb112102212
Arch of Severus from south, tb112105033
Arch of Severus, Julia Curia and Via Sacra from southeast, tb112102213
Arch of Severus, tb111905251
Base of statue for Constantius II, tb012001610
Basilica Emilia and Julia Curia from se, tb012001611
Basilica Emilia and Palatine Hill from north, tb112102231
Basilica Julia, tb112102233
Basilica Julia, tb112105014
Basilica of Maxentius closeup, tb112002234
Basilica of Maxentius from Palatine Hill, tb112002235
Basilica of Maxentius, tb112105111
Cloaca Maxima, sewer system from 7th c BC, tb112105023
Column of Phocas and Temple of Saturn, tb112002285
Column of Trajan, tb111902286
Column of Trajan, tb111905234
Column of Trajan, tb111905258
Columns in Forum of Julius Caesar at night, tb112002287
Columns of Diocletian from southeast, tb112102232
Forum and Colosseum from north, tb111902298
Forum and Column of Phocas, tb111905249
Forum and Palatine hill, tb111905233
Forum excavations and Basilica Emilia from east, tb112102300
Forum excavations and Palatine hill, tb111905250
Forum excavations from east, tb012001626
Forum excavations from north, tb112102301
Forum excavations from north, tb112102302
Forum excavations from north, tb112105012
Forum excavations from south, tb112105026
Forum excavations from southeast, tb112105109
Forum excavations looking south, tb012001627
Forum of Augustus and Temple of Mars Ultor, tb111905274
Forum of Augustus north exedra, tb111905268
Forum of Augustus north exedra, tb112105951
Forum of Augustus south exedra, tb111905272
Forum of Augustus south exedra, tb112102306
Forum of Augustus, tb111902303
Forum of Caesar, tb111905239
Forum of Caesar, tb111905241
Forum of Julius Caesar from southwest, tb112102304
Forum of Julius Caesar, tb111905235
Forum of Nerva doorway, tb112102305
Forum of Trajan and Column of Trajan, tb111905259
Forum of Trajan and Column of Trajan, tb112105961
Forum remains with Column of Phocas, tb012001630
Forum Sacred Way paving stones, tb112105073
Forum steps next to Niger Lapis, tb012001631
Forum Temple of Vesta, tb011901632
Forum with Julia Curia building, tb111905230
Julia Curia ancient fresco on wall, tb112102312
Julia Curia and St Luke and Martina Church, tb112102320
Julia Curia at night from northeast, tb112002313
Julia Curia facade, tb112105018
Julia Curia floor, tb112102314
Julia Curia from south, tb112105027
Julia Curia headless porphyry statue, tb112102317
Julia Curia interior, tb112102318
Julia Curia interior, tb112105119
Marble carvings in Julia Curia, reign of Trajan, tb112102336
Marble carvings in Julia Curia, reign of Trajan, tb112102337
Markets of Trajan and Forum of Trajan, tb112105954
Markets of Trajan panorama, tb11210595p
Markets of Trajan, tb111902340
Markets of Trajan, tb111905266
Monumental inscription Caesar Augustus, tb112102389
Monumental Inscription IMP AUG TRI PLEPS, tb112102390
Niger Lapis, tb012001667
Porticus of the Dei Consentes, tb112102427
St Luke and Martina Church, tb111802445
Tabularium foundation beneath Palazzo Senatorio, tb112105131
Temple of Antoninus and Faustina, tb112002491
Temple of Antoninus and Faustina, tb112105029
Temple of Castor and Pollux, tb112002288
Temple of Castor and Pollux, tb112105025
Temple of Julius Caesar, tb112105034
Temple of Mars Ultor from southeast, tb112105947
Temple of Mars Ultor from southwest, tb112105952
Temple of Saturn, tb012001759
Temple of Saturn, tb112105008
Temple of the Divus Romulus, tb012001760
Temple of the Divus Romulus, tb112105057
Temple of Venus and Rome columns at night, tb111805174
Temple of Venus and Rome from southeast, tb112102496
Temple of Vespasian columns, tb112102498
Temple of Vesta, tb112105038
Temples of Saturn and Vespasian, tb112105021
Temples of Saturn and Vespasian, tb112105133
Trajan statue with Markets of Trajan, tb112102486
Umbilicus Urbis milestone zero, tb011901763
Umbilicus Urbum and Rostrum from north, tb112102510
Via di Tulliano ancient stones, tb111905245
Via di Tulliano ancient stones, tb112102514
Via di Tulliano ancient stones, tb112105968

Mamertine Prison (22)
Arch of Severus and Mamertine Prison, tb012001604
Mamertine Prison building, tb012001634
Mamertine Prison building, tb012001635
Mamertine Prison building, tb111905237
Mamertine Prison busts of Peter and Paul, tb112105001
Mamertine Prison cell column and altar, tb112105975
Mamertine Prison cell panorama, tb11210597p
Mamertine Prison cell panorama, tb11210598p
Mamertine Prison cell with manhole panorama, tb11210597p
Mamertine Prison cell writing area and door, tb112105989
Mamertine Prison cell, tb112102328
Mamertine Prison cell, tb112105969
Mamertine Prison entrance door, tb011801637
Mamertine Prison entrance, tb112105002
Mamertine Prison exterior with Peter and Paul, tb111905257
Mamertine Prison exterior, tb111905256
Mamertine Prison list of prisoners, tb112102330
Mamertine Prison list of prisoners, tb112102331
Mamertine Prison manhole from below, tb112102332
Mamertine Prison manhole, tb011801639
Mamertine Prison plaque in cell, tb112102333
Mamertine Prison steps leading to cell, tb112102334

Museum of Roman Civilization (107)
Augustus period replicas on wall, tb111902229
Bronze head of Augustus, 30-20 BC, replica, tb111902241
Bronze she-wolf from Campidoglio, 6th or 5th c BC, replica, tb111902242
Bust of Cicero, 1st c AD, replica, tb111902243
Hadrian’s Villa library reconstruction, tb011901710
Hadrian’s Villa library reconstruction, tb011901711
Inscription of Peter and Paul, replica, tb111902308
Model of battering ram, tb111902348
Model of Circus of Massenzio, tb111902349
Model of Column of Emperor Antoninus Pius, tb011901641
Model of Constantine’s Bethlehem Church facade, tb011901642
Model of Constantine’s Bethlehem Church, tb011901643
Model of Hadrian’s Villa, tb111902387
Model of Leptis Magna, tb111902364
Model of mausoleum of Diocletian, tb111902366
Model of Pompeii Forum, tb011901647
Model of Roman amphitheater cross-section, tb011901625
Model of Roman basilica in Pompeii, tb011901648
Model of Roman battering ram machine, tb011901649
Model of Roman battering ram machine, tb111902367
Model of Roman battering ram, tb011901650
Model of Roman camp perimeter, tb011901652
Model of Roman camp perimeter, tb011901653
Model of Roman catapult, tb011901654
Model of Roman catapult, tb111902370
Model of Roman Colosseum construction section, tb011901655
Model of Roman Colosseum exterior, tb011901656
Model of Roman Colosseum, tb011901657
Model of Roman infantry attack on wall, tb111902371
Model of Roman siege engine, tb111902372
Model of Roman temple in Pompeii, tb011901659
Model of Roman war machine, tb011901660
Model of Rome aqueduct, tb011901661
Model of Rome in 2nd c BC from east, tb011901712
Model of Rome in 2nd c BC from east, tb011901713
Model of Rome in 2nd c BC from northeast, tb011901714
Model of Rome in 2nd c BC from northwest, tb011901715
Model of Rome in 2nd c BC from south closeup, tb011901716
Model of Rome in 2nd c BC from south, tb011901717
Model of Rome in 2nd c BC from south, tb111902347
Model of Rome in 4th c AD Circus Maximus view north, tb011901718
Model of Rome in 4th c AD Colosseum and Forum view northeast, tb011901719
Model of Rome in 4th c AD Colosseum and Forum view northwest, tb011901720
Model of Rome in 4th c AD Colosseum and Forum view northwest, tb011901721
Model of Rome in 4th c AD Forum view northwest, tb011901722
Model of Rome in 4th c AD of stadium of Domitian, tb011901723
Model of Rome in 4th c AD of stadium of Domitian, tb011901724
Model of Rome in 4th c AD of stadium of Domitian, tb011901725
Model of Rome in 4th c AD Palatine Hill view east, tb011901726
Model of Rome in 4th c AD Palatine Hill view south, tb011901727
Model of Rome in 4th c AD Tiber River and island view northeast, tb011901728
Model of Rome in 4th c AD Tiber River and island view southeast, tb011901729
Model of Rome in 4th c AD view east from tomb of Augustus, tb011901730
Model of Rome in 4th c AD view east, tb011901731
Model of Rome in 4th c AD view north, tb011901732
Model of Rome in 4th c AD view south with Pantheon, tb011901733
Model of Rome in 4th c AD view south, tb011901734
Model of Rome in 4th c AD view south, tb011901735
Model of Sabratha theater, tb011901663
Model of screw winepress, tb011901664
Model of siege tower, tb111902374
Model of Temple of Augustus in Ankara, tb111902382
Model of Temple of Augustus in Ankara, tb111902383
Model of theater of Marcello, tb111902384
Model of theater of Marcello, tb111902385
Model of theater of Marcello, tb111902386
Model of theater of Sabratha scaenae frons, tb011901662
Model of victory monument of Augustus, 7 BC, tb011901665
Museum of Roman Civilization, tb111902392
Reconstruction of basalt grinding stones, tb011901640
Reconstruction of lyre, tb011901644
Reconstruction of Roman catapult, tb111902369
Reconstruction of Roman siege weapon, tb111902373
Replica of Emperor Tiberius, tb111902350
Replica of Emperor Tiberius, tb111902351
Replica of family of Druso, tb111902352
Replica of head of Emperor Claudius, tb111902353
Replica of head of Nero, tb111902354
Replica of head of Nero, tb111902355
Replica of head of Vespasian, tb111902356
Replica of head of Vespasian, tb111902357
Replica of inscription of Augustus, tb111902358
Replica of inscription of Domitian, tb111902359
Replica of inscription of Emperor Claudius, tb111902360
Replica of inscription of Marcus Aurelius, tb111902361
Replica of inscription of Vespasian, tb111902362
Replica of Jewish emblem, tb111902363
Replica of Marcus Aurelius conquest, tb111902365
Replica of Organ a Mantici, tb011901646
Replica of Roman calendar, time of Augustus, tb111902368
Replica of Roman emperor with head covered, tb011901658
Replica of statue of Druso Maggiore, tb111902375
Replica of statue of Emperor Claudius, tb111902376
Replica of statue of Emperor Hadrian, tb111902377
Replica of statue of Emperor Hadrian, tb111902378
Replica of statue of Emperor Titus, tb111902379
Replica of statue of Emperor Trajan, tb111902380
Replica of statue of Marcus Aurelius, tb111902381
Replica of Trajan monument in Romania, tb011901645
Replicas of Column of Trajan scenes, tb011901761
Replicas of Column of Trajan scenes, tb011901762
Replicas of Roman bowls and pans, tb011901651
Roman emperor family tree illustration, tb111902428
Romulus and Remus suckling she-wolf replica, tb111902434
Romulus and Remus suckling she-wolf replica, tb111902435
Statue of Augustus with head covered, replica, tb111902485
Tombstone of Apostle Paul inscription, replica, tb111902507

Ostia (33)
Ostia 15th c church of Martin V, tb011701676
Ostia capital government building, tb011701677
Ostia church where Augustine’s mother buried, tb011701678
Ostia Decumanus with theater, tb011701679
Ostia Decumanus, tb011701680
Ostia Decumanus, tb011701681
Ostia excavations along Decumanus, tb011701682
Ostia excavations, tb011701683
Ostia first-century synagogue bema, tb011701669
Ostia first-century synagogue from back, tb011701670
Ostia first-century synagogue from distance, tb011701671
Ostia first-century synagogue from distance, tb011701672
Ostia first-century synagogue from front, tb011701673
Ostia first-century synagogue from outside, tb011701674
Ostia first-century synagogue from side, tb011701675
Ostia gymnasium mosaic, tb011701684
Ostia gymnasium with Baths of Neptune, wk030603807
Ostia gymnasium with large mosaic floors, wk030603808
Ostia harbor where Paul likely departed, tb011701685
Ostia inscription on wall, tb011701686
Ostia inscription with Caesar Augustus, tb011701687
Ostia monument from theater, tb011701688
Ostia original menorah from first-century synagogue, tb011701689
Ostia public latrines, wk030603809
Ostia Roman bathhouse mosaic, tb011701690
Ostia Roman bathhouse, tb011701691
Ostia shop mosaics of products sold, wk030603810
Ostia square of the guilds with theater, wk031101692
Ostia Temple Rotundo, 3rd c AD, tb011701693
Ostia Temple to Augustus, tb011701694
Ostia theater exterior, tb011701695
Ostia theater from distance, tb011701696
Ostia theater from top, tb011701697

Palatine Hill (23)
Palatine Hill aqueduct of Claudius, tb112002207
Palatine Hill aqueduct of Claudius, tb112102206
Palatine Hill aqueduct of Claudius, tb112102208
Palatine Hill Baths of Septimius Severus, tb112002240
Palatine Hill courtyard near Domus Flavia nymphaeum, tb112002289
Palatine Hill Domus Augustiana peristyle from west, tb112002290
Palatine Hill Domus Augustiana peristyle, tb112002291
Palatine Hill Domus Augustiana peristyle, tb112002292
Palatine Hill Domus Augustiana room, tb112002293
Palatine Hill Domus Augustiana, tb112002294
Palatine Hill Domus Flavia nymphaeum, tb112002295
Palatine Hill Domus Flavia octagonal fountain, tb112002296
Palatine Hill excavations, tb012001699
Palatine Hill excavations, tb012001700
Palatine Hill excavations, tb112002393
Palatine Hill from north, tb111902395
Palatine Hill from northeast, tb012001701
Palatine Hill remains, tb112002396
Palatine Hill remains, tb112002397
Palatine Hill Stadium of Domitian from north, tb112002398
Palatine Hill Stadium of Domitian southern end, tb112002400
Palatine Hill Stadium of Domitian with building, tb112002401
Palatine Hill Stadium of Domitian with spina, tb112002402

Pantheon (12)
Pantheon columns in front, tb111902403
Pantheon fountain and obelisk in front, tb111902405
Pantheon interior panorama, tb11210515p
Pantheon interior panorama, tb11210516p
Pantheon interior panorama, tb11210517p
Pantheon interior with entrance, tb112105164
Pantheon interior with Hadrianic door, tb111902406
Pantheon interior, tb111902409
Pantheon interior, tb112105154
Pantheon with fountain and obelisk in front, tb111902411
Pantheon with fountain and obelisk in front, tb111902412
Pantheon, tb111902413

Scenes of Rome (52)
Appian Way with ancient paving stones, tb111805134
Appian Way with ancient paving stones, tb111805144
Appian Way with ancient paving stones, tb112102513
Campdoglio piazza statue of Marcus Aurelius on horseback, tb112105142
Campdoglio piazza with statue of Marcus Aurelius on horseback, tb112102244
Campdoglio piazza, tb112105140
Castel Sant’Angelo and Tiber River, tb112002245
Castel Sant’Angelo, tb111802246
Catacomb of St Callisto entrance, tb112102247
Catacomb of St Domitilla painting in arcosolium, tb112102248
Catacomb of St Sebastian with inscription, wk030802429
Catacomb of St Sebastian, burial places, wk030802430
Catacomb of St Sebastian, wk030802431
City walls of Aurelian with Maggiore gate, tb112102252
City walls of Aurelian, tb112102253
City walls of Aurelian, tb112102254
City walls of Aurelian, tb112102255
City walls of Aurelian, tb112102256
City walls of Aurelian, tb112102257
Fountain of Four Rivers, tb111902307
Granite obelisk of Pharaoh Apries in Piazza del Minerva, tb112105150
Hadrian’s Villa Canopus, artificial lake, wk030803802
Hadrian’s Villa Canopus, artificial lake, wk030803803
Hadrian’s Villa intricate plaster, large bath, wk030803804
Hadrian’s Villa large bath complex, wk030803805
Maggiore gate, tb112102324
Mausoleum of Augustus, tb111902341
Mausoleum of Augustus, tb111902342
Obelisk of Ramses II in Piazza del Popolo, df072904280
Piazza Navonna, Stadium of Domitian, with Egyptian obelisk from Serapis, tb111902418
Pyramid of Caius Cestius, tb011901736
Rome rooftops from Vittoriano, tb111902432
Rome sunset from Spanish Steps, tb112105191
San Giovanni gate in city walls of Aurelian, tb112102436
She-wolf suckling Remus and Romulus statue at night, tb112002437
She-wolf suckling Remus and Romulus statue, tb012001737
She-wolf suckling Remus and Romulus statue, tb112105136
Spanish steps with Roman imitation of Egyptian obelisk, tb111902438
St Paul gate, tb112102450
Theater of Marcellus, tb112102499
Tiber River autumn scene, tb111802297
Tiber River with canoe, tb111902500
Tiber River, tb111902501
Tiber River, tb112105172
Tomb of Romulus, tb112102506
Trevi Fountain with triton blowing conch, tb111902508
Trevi Fountain, tb111902509
View from Vittoriano, tb111902515
View from Vittoriano, tb111902516
View of Rome from St Peter’s Basilica to northeast, tb112002517
View of Rome from St Peter’s Basilica to s, tb112002518
Vittoriano, tb112105148

Vatican (38)
Column base of original St Peter’s Church below St Peter’s Basilica, tb111802284
Nativity scene at St Peter’s Basilica, tb011801666
Pavement level of original St Peter’s Church below St Peter’s Basilica, tb111802416
St Peter’s Basilica altar, tb111802201
St Peter’s Basilica Apostle Peter statue with holy foot, tb111802204
St Peter’s Basilica Baldacchino by Bernini, tb112102230
St Peter’s Basilica dome, tb011801750
St Peter’s Basilica dome, tb112002474
St Peter’s Basilica facade, tb011801751
St Peter’s Basilica facade, tb111802475
St Peter’s Basilica from Vatican Museum, tb111802476
St Peter’s Basilica interior from dome, tb112002477
St Peter’s Basilica interior from dome, tb112002478
St Peter’s Basilica interior with Baldacchino by Bernini, tb011801752
St Peter’s Basilica interior, tb011801754
St Peter’s Basilica interior, tb111802479
St Peter’s Basilica Michelangelo’s Pieta closeup, tb111802345
St Peter’s Basilica Michelangelo’s Pieta, tb111802346
St Peter’s Basilica monument to Pope Innocent XII, tb112102388
St Peter’s Basilica with obelisk, tb011801753
St Peter’s Basilica with Tiber River, tb111802480
St Peter’s Square colonnade, tb111802481
St Peter’s Square from St Peter’s Basilica dome, tb112002482
St Peter’s Square from St Peter’s Basilica dome, tb112002483
St Peter’s Square panorama, eh011911656
St Peter’s Square with obelisk, tb011801755
St Peter’s Square with obelisk, tb011801756
St Peter’s Square, tb011801757
Swiss guard at St Peter’s Basilica, tb111802487
Swiss guard at St Peter’s Basilica, tb111802488
Tomb of Peter area below St Peter’s Basilica, tb111802484
Tomb of Peter below St Peter’s Basilica, tb111802502
Tomb of Peter below St Peter’s Basilica, tb111802503
Tomb of Pope below St Peter’s Basilica, tb111802504
Tomb of Pope John Paul I below St Peter’s Basilica, tb111802505
Vatican buildings from St Peter’s Basilica dome, tb112002511
Vatican Museum from St Peter’s Basilica dome, tb112002512
Vatican window of Pope’s appearance, tb011801764


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