Massive Rare Viking Ship Revealed by Radar

Massive Rare Viking Ship Revealed by Radar


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A massive Viking ship has been found in Norway less than two feet below the Earth’s surface. Archaeologists at the Norwegian Institute for Cultural Heritage Research (NIKU) made the discovery using radar designed to permeate the ground without actually excavating any artifacts.

The Viking ship, which is estimated to be 65 feet long, is among the largest ever found. Important Norse Vikings were commonly buried with their ships and this ship’s size indicates that it belonged to a well-respected chieftain. Based on the scan, the lower half of the ship is in unusually good condition.

“This find is incredibly exciting as we only know three well-preserved Viking ship finds in Norway excavated long time ago,” Dr. Knut Paasche, Head of the Department of Digital Archaeology at NIKU said in a press release.

Read More: How Did the Vikings Honor Their Dead?

The age of the ship is still unknown, but the surrounding 30-foot-tall Jelle Mound in Østfold County, Norway has been dated back 1,500 years. The area was thought to have been void of any Viking burials—much less such a huge find—because 19-century farmers had repeatedly plowed over the land for years. Archaeologists believe that a burial mound that had once covered the ship had been plowed away since the ship was detected just 1.6 feet below the ground’s surface.

Read More: Viking Boat Burial Reveals Its Secrets

These finds, along with five buried dwellings used by Vikings, or longhouses—three of which were very large—suggest the site was likely a significant burial ground for the Norse warriors.

“The ship burial does not exist in isolation, but forms part of a cemetery which is clearly designed to display power and influence,” said project leader at NIKU Lars Gustavsen.

There are no current plans to excavate the site, however the archaeologists at NIKU have proposed continuing non-invasive investigations to examine and map the burials. As large Viking ships usually contain the prized possessions of the departed—if they weren’t looted—the site could contain a trove of artifacts.


Contents

    as Your Captain, Merrill Stubing as Your Ship's Doctor, Adam "Doc" Bricker as Your Yeoman Purser, Burl "Gopher" Smith (seasons 1–6), chief purser (seasons 7–9) as Your Bartender, Isaac Washington (seasons 1–9, four specials), yeoman purser (made-for-TV movie) as Your Cruise Director, Julie McCoy (seasons 1–7, four specials, plus a guest appearance in season 9) as Vicki Stubing, the Captain's daughter (seasons 3–9, four specials, made-for-TV movie, plus a guest appearance in season 2) [8] as Your Ship's Photographer, Ashley "Ace" Covington Evans (seasons 7–9), yeoman purser (four specials) as Judy McCoy, Julie's sister and successor as cruise director (seasons 8–9)

MacLeod, Kopell and Lange are the only cast members to appear in every episode of the TV series as well as the last three made-for-TV movies. Grandy was in every episode throughout the run of the series, but was not in the last of the TV movies due to his 1986 campaign for (and election to) the United States House of Representatives. MacLeod was not the captain of the Pacific Princess in the first two TV movies and did not appear in them, although when his character was introduced there was a mention of him being "the new captain".

Among the series' attractions was the casting of well-known actors in guest-starring roles, with many famous film stars of prior decades making rare television appearances. The Love Boat was not the first comedy series to use the guest-star cast anthology format—Love, American Style had used the formula seven years earlier—but it had such success with the formula that future series in similar style (such as Supertrain and Masquerade) always drew comparisons to The Love Boat. The series was followed on Saturday nights on ABC by Fantasy Island, which was likewise produced by Aaron Spelling, and had a similar format.

In the final season, a troupe of dancers who performed choreographed performances was introduced. The Love Boat Mermaids were made up of Tori Brenno (Maria), Debra Johnson (Patti), Deborah Bartlett (Susie), Macarena (Sheila), Beth Myatt (Mary Beth), Andrea Moen (Starlight), Teri Hatcher (Amy) and Nanci Lynn Hammond (Jane). [9]

SeasonEpisodesOriginally aired
First airedLast aired
Pilots3September 17, 1976 ( 1976-09-17 ) May 5, 1977 ( 1977-05-05 )
125September 24, 1977 ( 1977-09-24 ) May 20, 1978 ( 1978-05-20 )
227September 16, 1978 ( 1978-09-16 ) May 12, 1979 ( 1979-05-12 )
328September 15, 1979 ( 1979-09-15 ) May 3, 1980 ( 1980-05-03 )
428October 25, 1980 ( 1980-10-25 ) May 16, 1981 ( 1981-05-16 )
529October 3, 1981 ( 1981-10-03 ) May 15, 1982 ( 1982-05-15 )
629October 2, 1982 ( 1982-10-02 ) May 7, 1983 ( 1983-05-07 )
727October 1, 1983 ( 1983-10-01 ) May 12, 1984 ( 1984-05-12 )
827September 22, 1984 ( 1984-09-22 ) May 4, 1985 ( 1985-05-04 )
925September 28, 1985 ( 1985-09-28 ) May 24, 1986 ( 1986-05-24 )
Specials5November 21, 1986 ( 1986-11-21 ) February 12, 1990 ( 1990-02-12 )

Pilot movies: 1976–77 Edit

No.
overall
No. in
season
TitleDirected byWritten byOriginal air date
11"The Love Boat"Richard Kinon (Mona Lisa Speaks & Till Death Do Its Part)
Richard Kinon and Alan Myerson (Mr. & Mrs. Havlicek Aboard / Are There Any Real Love Stories?)
Carl Kleinschmitt (Mona Lisa Speaks / Till Death Do Its Part)
Robert Iles & James R. Stein (Mr. & Mrs. Havlicek Aboard)
Dawn Aldredge & Marion C. Freeman (Are There Any Real Love Stories?)
September 17, 1976 ( 1976-09-17 )
22"The Love Boat II"Hy AverbackDawn Aldredge & Marion C. Freeman (Here's Looking at You, Love)
Teleplay by: Dawn Aldredge & Marion C. Freeman
Story by: Dawn Aldredge & Marion C. Freeman and Leonora Thuna (For the Love of Sandy)
Carl Kleinschmitt (Unfaithfully Yours)
Steve Pretzker (The Heckler)
January 21, 1977 ( 1977-01-21 )
33"The New Love Boat"Richard KinonBrad Buckner (The Newlyweds)
Rick Hawkins & Liz Sage (The Exchange)
Michael Norell (Cleo's First Voyage)
May 5, 1977 ( 1977-05-05 )

Season 1: 1977–78 Edit

Season 2: 1978–79 Edit

No.
overall
No. in
season
TitleDirected byWritten byOriginal air date
26 271 2"Marooned/ The Search / Issac's Holiday: Parts 1 & 2"Paul StanleyMichael Norell (Marooned)
Lee Aronsohn (The Search)
Ben Joelson & Art Baer (Issac's Holiday)
September 16, 1978 ( 1978-09-16 )
283"Rocky / Julie's Dilemma / Who's Who?"Allen Baron (Rocky)
Roger Duchowny (Julie's Dilemma / Who's Who?)
Ann Gibbs and Joel Kimmel (Rocky)
Ben Joelson and Art Baer (Julie's Dilemma)
Bob Fraser and Rob Dames (Who's Who?)
September 23, 1978 ( 1978-09-23 )
294"The Man Who Loved Women / A Different Girl / Oh, My Aching Brother"Allen BaronHoward Albrecht and Sol Weinstein (The Man Who Loved Women)
Cynthia Santillo (A Different Girl)
Bruce Howard (Oh, My Aching Brother)
September 30, 1978 ( 1978-09-30 )
305"Julie's Aunt / Where Is It Written? / The Big Deal"Allen BaronBarry Blitzer (Julie's Aunt)
Lan O'Kun (Where Is It Written?)
James F. Henry (The Big Deal)
October 14, 1978 ( 1978-10-14 )
316"Mike and Ike / The Witness / The Kissing Bandit"Roger Duchowny (Mike and Ike / The Witness)
Allen Baron (The Kissing Bandit)
Fred Grandy and Bernie Kopell (Mike and Ike / The Kissing Bandit)
Arnold Grossman (The Witness)
October 21, 1978 ( 1978-10-21 )
327"Ship of Ghouls"Roger DuchownyMickey RoseOctober 28, 1978 ( 1978-10-28 )
338"A Time for Everything / The Song Is Ended / Accidental Cruise / Anoushka" TBA TBANovember 4, 1978 ( 1978-11-04 )
349"Till Death Do Us Part–Maybe / Locked Away / Chubs"Allen BaronBen Joelson and Art Baer (Till Death Do Us Part–Maybe)
Howard Albrecht and Sol Weinstein (Locked Away)
Loraine Despres (Chubs)
November 11, 1978 ( 1978-11-11 )
3510"Man of the Cloth / Her Own Two Feet / Tony's Family" TBA TBANovember 17, 1978 ( 1978-11-17 ) [10]
3611"Heads or Tails / Mona of the Movies / The Little People" TBA TBANovember 25, 1978 ( 1978-11-25 )
3712"The Captain's Cup / The Folks from Home / Legal Eagle"Alan RafkinBen Joelson & Art Baer (The Captain's Cup)
Fred Grandy & Bernie Kopell (The Folks from Home)
Gordon Farr (Legal Eagle)
December 2, 1978 ( 1978-12-02 )
3813"El Kid / The Last Hundred Bucks / Isosceles Triangle" TBA TBADecember 9, 1978 ( 1978-12-09 )
3914"Julie Falls Hard / Double Wedding / The Dummies" TBA TBADecember 16, 1978 ( 1978-12-16 )
4015"My Sister, Irene / The 'Now' Marriage / Second Time Around"Roger DuchownyTony Webster (My Sister, Irene and Second Time Around)
Ray Jessel & Howard Albrecht & Sol Weinstein (The 'Now' Marriage)
January 13, 1979 ( 1979-01-13 )
4116"Gopher's Opportunity / The Switch / Home Sweet Home" TBA TBAJanuary 20, 1979 ( 1979-01-20 )
4217"Second Chance / Don't Push Me / Like Father, Like Son" TBA TBAJanuary 27, 1979 ( 1979-01-27 )
43 4418 19"Disco Baby / Alas, Poor Dwyer / After the War / Ticket to Ride / Itsy Bitsy: Parts 1 & 2"Roger DuchownyBarry Blitzer (Alas, Poor Dwyer)
Carmen Finestra (After the War)
Howard Albrecht & Sol Weinstein (Itsy Bitsy)
Joyce Armor & Judie Neer (Ticket to Ride)
Ray Jessel (Disco Baby)
February 3, 1979 ( 1979-02-03 )
4520"Best of Friends / Aftermath / Dream Boat" TBA TBAFebruary 10, 1979 ( 1979-02-10 )
4621"A Good and Faithful Servant / The Secret Life of Burl Smith / Tug of War / Designated Lover" TBA TBAFebruary 17, 1979 ( 1979-02-17 )
4722"Love Me, Love My Dog / Poor Little Rich Girl / The Decision" TBA TBAFebruary 24, 1979 ( 1979-02-24 )
4823"A Funny Valentine / The Wallflower / Home is Not a Home" TBA TBAMarch 3, 1979 ( 1979-03-03 )
4924"Ages of Man / Bo 'n Sam / Families" TBA TBAMarch 10, 1979 ( 1979-03-10 )
5025"Murder on the High Seas / Sounds of Silence / Cyrano de Bricker" TBA TBAMarch 17, 1979 ( 1979-03-17 )
5126"April's Return / Super Mom / I'll See You Again" TBA TBAMay 5, 1979 ( 1979-05-05 )
5227"Third Wheel / Grandmother's Day / Second String Mom" TBA TBAMay 12, 1979 ( 1979-05-12 )

Season 3: 1979–80 Edit

Season 4: 1980–81 Edit

No.
overall
No. in
season
TitleDirected byWritten byOriginal air date
811"Sergeant Bull / Friends and Lovers / Miss Mother"Roger DuchownyCarmen Finestra (Sergeant Bull)
Steve Hattman & Dave Hackel (Friends and Lovers)
Ann Gibbs & Joel Kimmel (Miss Mother)
October 25, 1980 ( 1980-10-25 )
82 832 3"The Family Plan / The Promoter / May the Best Man Win / Forever Engaged / The Judges"Roger DuchownyBen Joelson & Art Baer (The Promoter & May the Best Man Win)
Tony Webster (Forever Engaged & The Judges)
Fred S. Fox & Seaman Jacobs (The Family Plan)
November 1, 1980 ( 1980-11-01 )
844"The Major's Wife / The Oilman Cometh / Target Gopher / Strange Honeymoon"Roger Duchowny TBANovember 8, 1980 ( 1980-11-08 )
85 865 6"The Mallory Quest / Julie, the Vamp / The Offer"Richard KinonStephen Kandel & Harvey Bullock (The Mallory Quest)
R.S. Allen & Harvey Bullock (Julie, the Vamp)
R.S. Allen (The Offer)
November 15, 1980 ( 1980-11-15 )
877"The Horse Lover / Secretary to the Stars / Julie's Decision / Gopher and Isaac Buy a Horse / The Village People Ride Again"Roger Duchowny TBANovember 22, 1980 ( 1980-11-22 )
888"The Baby Alarm / Tell Her She's Great / Matchmaker, Matchmaker Times Two"Ray Austin TBANovember 29, 1980 ( 1980-11-29 )
899"She Stole His Heart / Return of the Captain's Brother / Swag and Mag"Richard KinonJack Turley (She Stole His Heart)
Richard Albrecht & Casey Keller (Return of the Captain's Brother)
Howard Albrecht & Sol Weinstein (Swag and Mag)
December 6, 1980 ( 1980-12-06 )
9010"Boomerang / Captain's Triangle / Out of This World"Richard Kinon TBADecember 13, 1980 ( 1980-12-13 )
9111"That's My Dad / The Captain's Bird / Captive Audience"Allen BaronBen Joelson & Art Baer (The Captain's Bird)
Hudson Hickman & Alfred Monacella (That's My Dad)
Richard Albrecht & Casey Keller (Captive Audience)
December 20, 1980 ( 1980-12-20 )
9212"Doc's Dismissal / The Frugal Pair / The Girl Next Door"Richard KinonFredi Towbin (The Frugal Pair)
Tony Webster & Richard Albrecht & Casey Keller (Doc's Dismissal)
Christopher Vane & Jill Baer (The Girl Next Door)
January 3, 1981 ( 1981-01-03 )
9313"Isaac's Secret / Seal of Approval / The Curse of the Dumbrowskis"Bob SweeneyLloyd J. Schwartz (Isaac's Teacher)
Madora McKenzie & Andy Ruben (Seal of Approval)
Ray Allen & Harvey Bullock (The Successor)
January 10, 1981 ( 1981-01-10 )
9414"From Here to Maternity / Jealousy / The Trigamist"Howard Morris TBAJanuary 17, 1981 ( 1981-01-17 )
9515"First Voyage, Last Voyage / April the Ninny / The Loan Arranger."Roger Duchowny TBAJanuary 17, 1981 ( 1981-01-17 )
9616"Gopher's Bride / Love with a Married Man / Not Tonight, Jack!"Richard Kinon TBAJanuary 24, 1981 ( 1981-01-24 )
9717"Lose One, Win One / The $10,000 Lover / Mind My Wife"Jack Arnold TBAJanuary 31, 1981 ( 1981-01-31 )
9818"Aquaphobic / Humpty, Dumpty / The Starmaker"Roger Duchowny TBAFebruary 7, 1981 ( 1981-02-07 )
9919"Return of the Ninny / Split Personality / Touchdown Twins"Roger Duchowny TBAFebruary 14, 1981 ( 1981-02-14 )
10020"Quiet, My Wife's Listening / Eye of the Beholder / The Nudist from Sunshine Gardens"Harry Mastrogeorge TBAFebruary 21, 1981 ( 1981-02-21 )
10121"Clothes Make the Girl / Black Sheep / Hometown Doc"Earl Bellamy TBAFebruary 28, 1981 ( 1981-02-28 )
10222"Sally's Paradise / I Love You Too, Smith / Mamma and Me"Earl Bellamy TBAMarch 7, 1981 ( 1981-03-07 )
10323"The Duel / Two for Julie / Aunt Hilly"Ray AustinEvelyn Marienberg (The Duel)
Barbara Allyn (Two for Julie)
Lou Patrick (Aunt Hilly)
March 14, 1981 ( 1981-03-14 )
10424"That Old Gang of Mine / Love with a Skinny Stranger / Vicki and the Gambler"Richard Kinon TBAApril 11, 1981 ( 1981-04-11 )
105 10625 26"This Year's Model / A Model Marriage / Vogue Rogue / Too Clothes for Comfort / Original Sin"Roger Duchowny TBAMay 2, 1981 ( 1981-05-02 )
10727"Maid for Each Other / Lost and Found / Then There Were Two"Howard Morris TBAMay 9, 1981 ( 1981-05-09 )
10828"Tony and Julie / Separate Beds / America's Sweetheart"Richard Kinon TBAMay 16, 1981 ( 1981-05-16 )

Season 5: 1981–82 Edit

Season 6: 1982–83 Edit

No.
overall
No. in
season
TitleDirected byWritten byOriginal air date
138 1391 2"Venetian Love Song / Down for the Count / Arrividerci, Gopher / The Arrangement: Parts 1 & 2"Richard KinonMike Marmer (Venetian Love Song & The Arrangement)
Tony Webster (Down for the Count)
Sid Morse (Arrividerci, Gopher)
October 2, 1982 ( 1982-10-02 )
1403"The Anniversary Gift / Honey Bee Mine / Bewigged, Bothered and Bewildered"Ted LangeHarvey Bullock (Bewigged, Bothered and Bewildered)
Jerry Winnick (The Anniversary Gift)
Buddy Atkinson (Honey Bee Mine)
October 16, 1982 ( 1982-10-16 )
1414"The Same Wavelength / Winning Isn't Everything / A Honeymoon for Horace"Robert ScheererLan O'Kun (The Same Wavelength)
Joan Brooker & Alexandra Stoddart (Winning Isn't Everything)
Buddy Atkinson (A Honeymoon for Horace)
October 23, 1982 ( 1982-10-23 )
1425"Command Performance / Hyde and Seek / Sketchy Love" TBA TBAOctober 30, 1982 ( 1982-10-30 )
1436"The Groupies / The Audition / Doc's Nephew"Don WeisSid Morse (The Audition)
Mike Marmer (The Groupies)
Jesse Dizon & Don Haberman (Doc's Nephew)
November 6, 1982 ( 1982-11-06 )
144 1457 8"The Spoonmaker Diamond / Papa Doc / The Role Model / Julie's Tycoon: Parts 1 & 2"Robert ScheererMike Marmer (The Spoonmaker Diamond & Papa Doc)
Catherine Bacos (The Role Model)
Richard Albrecht & Casey Keller (Julie's Tycoon)
November 13, 1982 ( 1982-11-13 )
1469"The Best of Friends / Too Many Dads / Love Will Find a Way" TBA TBANovember 20, 1982 ( 1982-11-20 )
14710"The Man in the Iron Shorts / The Victims / Heavens to Betsy" TBA TBANovember 27, 1982 ( 1982-11-27 )
14811"The Tomorrow Lady / Father, Dear Father / Still Life" TBA TBADecember 4, 1982 ( 1982-12-04 )
14912"Baby Talk / My Friend, the Executrix / Programmed for Love" TBA TBADecember 11, 1982 ( 1982-12-11 )
15013"The Christmas Presence" TBA TBADecember 18, 1982 ( 1982-12-18 )
15114"Paroled to Love / First Impressions / Love Finds Florence Nightingale" TBA TBAJanuary 8, 1983 ( 1983-01-08 )
15215"The Captain's Replacement / Sly as a Fox / Here Comes the Bride – Maybe" TBA TBAJanuary 15, 1983 ( 1983-01-15 )
15316"Doc's Big Case / Senior Sinners / A Booming Romance" TBA TBAJanuary 22, 1983 ( 1983-01-22 )
15417"Gopher's Daisy / Our Son, the Lawyer / Salvaged Romance" TBA TBAJanuary 29, 1983 ( 1983-01-29 )
155 15618 19"Isaac's Aegean Affair / The Captain and the Kid / Poor Rich Man / The Dean and the Flunkee: Parts 1 & 2" TBA TBAFebruary 5, 1983 ( 1983-02-05 )
15720"The Zinging Valentine / The Very Temporary Secretary / Final Score" TBA TBAFebruary 12, 1983 ( 1983-02-12 )
15821"The Captain's Crush / Out of My Hair / Off-Course Romance" TBA TBAFebruary 19, 1983 ( 1983-02-19 )
15922"I Like to Be in America / He Ain't Heavy / Abby's Maiden Voyage" TBA TBAFebruary 26, 1983 ( 1983-02-26 )
16023"Vicki's Dilemma / Discount Romance / Loser & Still Champ" TBA TBAMarch 5, 1983 ( 1983-03-05 )
16124"So Help Me Hannah / The Maid Cleans Up / C.P.R., I.O.U." TBA TBAMarch 12, 1983 ( 1983-03-12 )
16225"Going to the Dogs / Putting on the Dog / Women's Best Friend / Whose Dog Is It Anyway" TBA TBAMarch 26, 1983 ( 1983-03-26 )
16326"The Professor Has Class / When the Magic Disappears / We, the Jury" TBA TBAApril 2, 1983 ( 1983-04-02 )
164 16527 28"Hits and Missus / Return of Annabelle / Just Plain Folks Medicine / Caught in the Act / The Real Thing / Do Not Disturb / Lulu & Kenny (Country Music Jamboree): Parts 1 & 2" TBA TBAApril 30, 1983 ( 1983-04-30 )
16629"The Fountain of Youth / Bad Luck Cabin / Uncle Daddy" TBA TBAMay 7, 1983 ( 1983-05-07 )

Season 7: 1983–84 Edit

No.
overall
No. in
season
TitleDirected byWritten byOriginal air date
167 1681 2"The Pledge / East Meets West / Dear Roberta / My Two Dumplings: Parts 1 & 2"Robert ScheererLan O'Kun (The Pledge)
Christopher Vane & Jill Baer (East Meets West)
Lawrence Levy & Robert Spears (Dear Roberta)
Richard Albrecht & Casey Keller (My Two Dumplings)
October 1, 1983 ( 1983-10-01 )
1693"Bricker's Boy / Lotions of Love / The Hustlers"Jerome CourtlandStory by : Bernie Kopell & Fred Grandy (Bricker's Boy)
Lloyd Turner & Howard Liebling (Lotions of Love)
John Whelpley (The Hustlers)
Teleplay by : Tony Webster
October 8, 1983 ( 1983-10-08 )
1704"Youth Takes a Holiday / Don't Leave Home Without It / Prisoner of Love"Robert ScheererDonald Ross (Prisoner of Love)
David Ketchum & Tony DiMarco (Youth Takes a Holiday)
Richard A. Goldman (Don't Leave Home Without It)
October 15, 1983 ( 1983-10-15 )
1715"Rhino of the Year / One Last Time / For Love or Money"Don Weis TBAOctober 22, 1983 ( 1983-10-22 )
1726"Friend of the Family / Affair on Demand / Just Another Pretty Face"Ted LangeJerry Winnick (Friend of the Family)
Ronnie Cass & Donald Ross (Affair on Demand)
Joan Brooker & Alexandra Stoddart (Just Another Pretty Face)
October 29, 1983 ( 1983-10-29 )
173 1747 8"When Worlds Collide / The Captain and the Geisha / The Lottery Winners / The Emperor's Fortune: Parts 1 & 2"Jerome Courtland TBANovember 5, 1983 ( 1983-11-05 )
1759"Long Time No See / Bear Essence / Kisses and Makeup"Don WeisRichard A. Goldman (Long Time No See)
Mike Marmer (Bear Essence)
Story by : Ben Joelson & Art Baer (Kisses and Makeup)
Teleplay by : Hollace White & Stephanie Garman
November 12, 1983 ( 1983-11-12 )
17610"Julie and the Bachelor / Set-up for Romance / Intensive Care"Richard KinonDavid Ketchum & Tony DiMarco (Julie and the Bachelor)
Jim Rogers (Intensive Care)
Lloyd Turner & Howard Liebling (Set-Up for Romance)
November 19, 1983 ( 1983-11-19 )
17711"The World's Greatest Kisser / Don't Take My Wife, Please / The Reluctant Father"Ted LangeMartin Donovan (The Reluctant Father)
Richard A. Goldman (Don't Take My Wife, Please)
Buddy Atkinson (The World's Greatest Kisser)
November 26, 1983 ( 1983-11-26 )
17812"Dee Dee's Dilemma / Julie's Blind Date / The Prize Winner"Richard KinonHoward Albrecht & Sol Weinstein (Dee Dee's Dilemma)
Jill Baer & Christopher Vane (Julie's Blind Date)
Tony Webster (The Prize Winner)
December 3, 1983 ( 1983-12-03 )
17913"The Misunderstanding / Love Below Decks / The End Is Near"Robert ScheererMichael Grace (The Misunderstanding)
Story by : McLean Stevenson & Mike Marmer (Love Below Decks)
Rick Shaw & Brian Pollock (The End is Near)
Teleplay by : Mike Marmer
December 10, 1983 ( 1983-12-10 )
18014"The Last Case / Looking for Mr. Wilson / Love on Strike"Richard A. WellsDavid Abrams (The Last Case)
Story by : Ben Joelson & Art Baer (Love on Strike)
December 17, 1983 ( 1983-12-17 )
18115"How Do I Love Thee? / No More Alimony / Authoress! Authoress!"Kim FriedmanHoward Albrecht & Sol Weinstein (No More Alimony)
Mike Marmer (How Do I Love Thee?)
Tony Webster (Authoress! Authoress!)
January 7, 1984 ( 1984-01-07 )
18216"For Better or Worse / The Buck Stops Here / Bet on It"Richard Kinon TBAJanuary 14, 1984 ( 1984-01-14 )
18317"Aunt Emma, I Love You / Hoopla / The First Romance"Don Weis TBAJanuary 21, 1984 ( 1984-01-21 )
18418"Ace in the Hole / Uncle Joey's Song / Father in the Cradle"Richard Kinon TBAJanuary 28, 1984 ( 1984-01-28 )
185 18619 20"Polly's Poker Palace / Shop Ahoy / Double Date / The Hong Kong Affair / Two Tails of a City: Parts 1 & 2"Richard Kinon TBAFebruary 4, 1984 ( 1984-02-04 )
18721"Ace's Valet / Mother Comes First / Hit or Miss America" TBA TBAFebruary 25, 1984 ( 1984-02-25 )
18822"The Lady and the Maid / Love Is Blind / The Babymakers"Richard Kinon TBAMarch 3, 1984 ( 1984-03-03 )
18923"Side by Side / A Fish Out of Water / Rub Me Tender"Richard Kinon TBAMarch 10, 1984 ( 1984-03-10 )
19024"A Rose Is Not a Rose / Novelties / Too Rich and Too Thin" TBA TBAMarch 17, 1984 ( 1984-03-17 )
191 19225 26"Dreamboat / Gopher, Isaac & the Starlet / The Parents / The Importance of Being Johnny / Julie and the Producer: Parts 1 & 2"Robert Scheerer TBAMay 5, 1984 ( 1984-05-05 )
19327"Best Ex-Friends / All the Congressman's Women / Three Faces of Love"Ted Lange TBAMay 12, 1984 ( 1984-05-12 )

Season 8: 1984–85 Edit

Season 9: 1985–86 Edit

Specials: 1986–90 Edit

The one-hour sitcom was usually set aboard Pacific Princess, at the time a real-life Princess Cruises cruise ship. [11] Other ships used were the Pacific Princess ' twin sister vessel Island Princess, along with other cruise liners: SS Stella Solaris (for a Mediterranean Sea cruise), MS Pearl of Scandinavia (for a Chinese cruise), Royal Viking Sky (for European cruises, now MV Boudicca) and Royal Princess (now SS Artemis) and Sun Princess (for Caribbean Sea cruises). In 1981, P&O Cruises' line Sea Princess (now MS Veronica) was also used for the special two-hour episode "Julie's Wedding", set in and around Australia. Only the latter four ships still exist today.

The series was filmed primarily on sets in southern California: 20th Century Fox Studios for seasons one through five, and the Warner Hollywood Studios for the remainder of the series. The "star of the show", the cruise ship itself, after being renamed MS Pacific and being sold then owned by another cruise line in Spain, the now-world famous Pacific Princess was retired to Turkey in 2013, where she was scrapped by a ship breaking company after no further buyer could be found. [12]

Episodes set and filmed in other European and East Asian locations became more frequent instead of the usual west coasts along the Pacific shores of the Americas as the show continued. They traditionally aired as season premieres or during the sweeps months of February, May and November.

Writing format Edit

Another unique aspect of The Love Boat was its writing format. Every episode contained several storylines, each written by a different set of writers working on one group of guest stars. Thus episodes have multiple titles referencing its simultaneous storylines, e.g. the first episode of season one is "Captain & the Lady / Centerfold / One If by Land".

There were typically three storylines. One storyline usually focused on a member of the crew, a second storyline would often focus on a crew member interacting with a passenger, and the third storyline was more focused on a single passenger (or a group of passengers). The three storylines usually followed a similar thematic pattern: One storyline (typically the "crew" one) was straight-ahead comedy. The second would typically follow more of a romantic comedy format (with only occasional dramatic elements). The third storyline would usually be the most dramatic of the three, often offering few (if any) laughs and a far more serious tone.

Laugh track Edit

The series was also distinctive as being one of the few hour-long series ever made for American television that used a laugh track. [ citation needed ] Eight Is Enough, on the same network and produced at the same time, is another example.

Theme song and title sequence Edit

The Love Boat theme song was sung by Jack Jones (except for the last season, where a cover version by Dionne Warwick was used). The lyrics were written by Paul Williams with music by Charles Fox. The song has since been recorded and released commercially, by Charo in 1978 and Amanda Lear in 2001.

The opening sequence for the series underwent three changes over the years. From seasons one to eight, the opening sequence began with a long shot of the ship before the camera slowly zoomed in onto its bridge area. This was followed by posing shots of the crew members (updated several times due to cast additions and changes throughout all seasons) at different points on the ship set. The long shot footage of the ship was used for the credits of the celebrity guest stars. For only the first season, the guest stars were credited by having their names appear on the screen while the series' logo, a radar/compass style circle with four hearts, wrapped around them. Beginning with season two (and originally experimented with in the fifteenth episode of the first season), the compass was graphically put in place and at its center, the guest stars were shown posing for the camera on different parts of the set (or a city spot used in on-location episodes) while their names appeared at the bottom of the screen. For the final season, the compass was replaced by a crescent wave and the long shots of the ship were replaced by a montage of the various locations traveled to on the series. At the center of the wave graphic, the guest stars were shown posing for the camera wearing their formal outfits against different colored backgrounds.

For its first seven years, The Love Boat was very successful in the ratings. During that time, it ranked among the top 20, and even the top 10. For the 1980–81 season it posted its highest rating at No. 5. By the beginning of the 1984–85 season, the ratings were beginning to drop, and at the end of the following year, The Love Boat was canceled after nine years on ABC, although four three-hour specials aired during the 1986–87 season. In 1980-81, Love Boat aired in reruns on ABC daytime, and beat The Price is Right in the ratings for a few months.

Syndication Edit

The Love Boat entered the syndication market in the United States in September 1983, with Worldvision Enterprises handling distribution. As an alternative for stations with tight scheduling commitments, Worldvision offered edited 30-minute episodes in addition to the original hour-long programs beginning in the fall of 1986 after the series completed its original run on ABC.

  • The 1979 two hour season premiere of Charlie's Angels—another Aaron Spelling series—that introduced Shelley Hack as new angel Tiffany Welles, was titled "Love Boat Angels" and had that series' characters attempting to recover stolen museum artifacts while aboard the Pacific Princess on a cruise to the Virgin Islands (all of the Love Boat regulars had cameo appearances).
  • In 1982, "The Love Boat Goes to Fantasy Island" was a 90-minute back-to-back of each series—the episode started on The Love Boat, and the guest stars finished on Fantasy Island. [citation needed]
  • A TV reunion movie, The Love Boat: A Valentine Voyage, aired on CBS in 1990. [13]
  • A sketch on Saturday Night Live which featured Patrick Stewart as the guest star merged The Love Boat with Star Trek: The Next Generation. Stewart played the Captain while caricatures of Deanna Troi and Geordi LaForge played the Cruise Director and Barman respectively.
  • A second TV series, Love Boat: The Next Wave aired on UPN from 1998 to 1999, with Robert Urich as Captain Jim Kennedy, a retired United States Navy officer, Phil Morris as Chief Purser Will Sanders, and Heidi Mark as cruise director Nicole Jordan (several members of the original show's cast guest-starred on a reunion-themed episode, where it was revealed that Julie and Doc had been in love all along).
  • A two-part 1997 Martin episode, "Goin' Overboard", had the main characters going on a cruise and encountering Isaac, Julie, Doc, and Vicki.

Even though the cast of the female detective sleuths of Charlie's Angels had been in separate episodes of the series, there was a crossover episode of the series in which the lady detectives had a case on board the ship.

On rare occasions, there were crossovers between the stories. In one episode, actors Robert Reed and Florence Henderson, formerly of The Brady Bunch, guest-starred in separate segments. In one scene, the two bump into each other in the buffet line, exchange a "Do I know you?" questioning look, then do a double-take, and then shrug and continue on their separate ways without another word.

In a one-time Fantasy Island crossover episode, the cruise ship makes a detour to deliver a troubled woman (played by Loni Anderson) to the mysterious island of Mr. Roarke instead of by the usual plane, and her storyline continued on that series.

CBS DVD (distributed by Paramount) has released seasons 1–4 of The Love Boat on DVD in Region 1. Each season has been released in two-volume sets.

  • Episodic promos
  • The New Love Boat (TV movie pilot)
  • Episodic promos
  • Episodic promos
  • Episodic promos
  • Episodic promos
  • Episodic promos
  • Episodic promos
  • Episodic promos

On May 23, 2017, the original cast (MacLeod, Kopell, Grandy, Lange, Tewes and Whelan) reunited on Today, [17] where it was announced they will be receiving a joint star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame for their contributions to television, sponsored by Princess Cruises. [18]

In 2014, Fred Grandy, Bernie Kopell, Ted Lange, Gavin McLeod, Cynthia Lauren Tewes, and Jill Whelan became godparents (the passenger ship industry's equivalent of naval ship sponsors) of the Princess Cruises ship Regal Princess. [19]


Archaeology in Europe News

A couple in northern Norway were pulling up the floor of their house to install insulation when they found a glass bead, and then a Viking axe. Now archeologists suspect they live above an ancient Viking grave
"It wasn't until later that we realised what it could be," Mariann Kristiansen from Seivåg near Bodø told Norway's state broadcaster NRK of the find. "We first thought it was the wheel of a toy car."

Archaeologist Martinus Hauglid from Nordland county government visited the couple last Monday and judged taht find was most likely a grave from the Iron Age or Viking Age.

"It was found under stones that probably represent a cairn. We found an axe dated from between 950AD and 1050AD and a bead of dark blue glass, also of the late Viking period," he told The Local.

Read the rest of this article.


The true story behind the recovery of Extortion 17

On the night of Aug. 5 through Aug. 6, 2011, one of the worst tragedies in modern special operations history occurred. By this point in the war, the men who made up the special operations community were some of the most proficient and combat-hardened warriors the world had ever seen. Even so, the enemy always has a vote.

The men of 1st Platoon, Bravo Company, 2nd Battalion, 75th Ranger Regiment were on a longer-than-normal deployment as the rest of their company was on Team Merrill and they surged ahead with them.

Coalition security members prepare to conduct an operation in search of a Taliban leader. Photo by SGT Mikki L. Sprenkle, courtesy of Department of Defense.

They had yet another raid mission in pursuit of a high-value target in the Tangi Valley, which was in Wardak Province, Afghanistan, on the night of August 5.

The mission was not easy. The Rangers took contact not only during their movement to the target but also on the target. Despite the tough fight that left some wounded, the enemy combatants were no match for the Ranger platoon. They secured the target and were gathering anything of value for intelligence when it was suggested by the Joint Operations Center (JOC) back at the Forward Operating Base (FOB) that a platoon of SEALs from a Naval Special Mission Unit be launched to chase down the three or four combatants that ran, or squirted, from the target.

This was a notoriously bad area, and the Ranger platoon sergeant responded that they did not want the aerial containment that was offered at that time. The decision was made to launch anyway. The platoon-sized element boarded a CH-47D Chinook, callsign Extortion 17, as no SOF air assets were available on that short of notice.

U.S. Special Forces Soldiers, attached to Special Operations Task Force-Afghanistan, alongside Afghan agents from the National Interdiction Unit, NIU, load onto CH-47 Chinooks helicopters for their infiltration prior to an operation in the Ghorak district, Helmand province, Afghanistan, Sept. 12, 2016. Photo by Sgt. Connor Mendez, courtesy of U.S. Army.

As Extortion 17 moved into final approach of the target area at 0238 local time, the Rangers on the ground watched in horror as it took a direct hit from an RPG (rocket-propelled grenade). The helicopter fell from the sky, killing all 38 on board. The call came over the radio that they had a helicopter down, and the platoon stopped what they were doing to move to the crash site immediately. Because of the urgency of the situation, they left behind the detainees they fought hard to capture.

The platoon moved as fast as possible, covering 7 kilometers of the rugged terrain at a running pace, arriving in under an hour. They risked further danger by moving on roads that were known to have IEDs (improvised explosive devices) to arrive at the crash site as fast as they could, as they were receiving real-time intelligence that the enemy was moving to the crash site to set up an ambush.

Upon their arrival, they found a crash site still on fire. Some of those on board did not have their safety lines attached and were thrown from the helicopter, which scattered them away from the crash site, so the platoon’s medical personnel went to them first to check for any signs of life. With no luck, they then began gathering the remains of the fallen and their sensitive items.

Footage of the Extortion 17 crash site revealed mangled weapons and melted metal. Screen capture via YouTube.

Similar to the Jessica Lynch rescue mission almost a decade prior, the Rangers on the ground decided to push as many guys as possible out on security to spare them from the gruesome task. Approximately six Rangers took on the lion’s share of the work. They attempted to bring down two of the attached cultural support team (CST) members, but had to send them back as they quickly lost their composure at the sight of it all. On top of that, the crashed aircraft experienced a secondary explosion after the Rangers arrived that sent shrapnel into two of the medics helping to gather bodies.

Despite their injuries, they kept working. Later in the day they had to deal with a flash flood from enemy fighters releasing dammed water into the irrigation canal running through the crash site in an attempt to separate the Ranger platoon, cutting them in half. Luckily, because of the sheer amount of water heading toward them, they heard it before it hit them and were moved out of the way before anyone was hurt. If that wasn’t enough, there was also an afternoon lightning storm that was so intense it left some of their equipment inoperable and their platoon without aerial fire support.

Meanwhile, 3rd Platoon, Delta Company from 1st Battalion, 75th Ranger Regiment was alerted after coming off a mission of their own. They took a small break to get some sleep before they flew out to replace the other platoon, which would hold the site through the day. Once they awoke, they were told to prepare to stay out for a few days. They rode out and landed at the nearest Helicopter Landing Zone (HLZ), 7 kilometers from the crash site, and made their way in with an Air Force CSAR team in tow.

Austin Williams visits the gravesite of U.S. Navy Petty Officer 1st Class Christopher C. Campbell in Section 60 of Arlington National Cemetery on Memorial Day, May 30, 2016. Campbell was one of 30 Americans killed when a CH-47 Chinook helicopter, with the call sign Extortion 17, crashed in Afghanistan. Photo by Rachel Larue, courtesy of Arlington National Cemetery.

After arriving, the platoon from 2/75 had to make the 7-kilometer trek back to the HLZ, as that was the nearest place a helicopter could land in the rugged terrain. The men were exhausted, having walked to their objective the night before, fighting all night, running to the crash site, securing it through the day only to execute another long movement to exfil.

New to the scene, the platoon from 1/75 did what they could to disassemble the helicopter and prepare it to be moved. The last platoon evacuated the bodies and sensitive items on board, so now the only thing left was the large pieces of the aircraft spread out across three locations. They were out for three days straight, using demolitions as well as torches to cut the aircraft into moveable sections and then loading them onto vehicles that the conventional Army unit that owned the battlespace brought in.

Despite the gruesome and sobering task, Rangers worked until the mission was accomplished. The third stanza of the Ranger Creed states that you will never fail your comrades and that you will shoulder more than your fair share of the task, whatever it may be, 100 percent and then some. The Rangers of these two platoons more than lived the Creed in response to the Extortion 17 tragedy.

This article originally appeared on Coffee or Die. Follow @CoffeeOrDieMag on Twitter.


The Lost Museum


Four years ago, Ethan Lasser was searching in Harvard’s archives for clues to the whereabouts of a portrait by John Singleton Copley, missing since the American Revolution, when he stumbled across records of something even more compelling: a lost museum. Repeatedly, the archives referred to a place called “the Philosophy Chamber.” This was “so intriguing and mysterious,” says the Stebbins curator of American art, “that the name got me digging a bit deeper.” He discovered that, in addition to three massive Copley portraits that once hung together on the east wall of Harvard Hall, “there were all kinds of other objects and activities in this room.” This launched Lasser on a quest to find the objects, many now scattered in obscure attics and on dusty shelves at Harvard and beyond. “Uniquely in North America,” he says, “a significant proportion still survive.” He aimed to reunite them, to recreate this lost museum.

In the eighteenth century, when the collection was formed, objects were understood to hold information. They were instructive. Instruments such as pendulums and prisms, as well as paintings, minerals, natural history specimens, and plaster casts of classical sculptures were among the many objects used to teach students—and were considered as critical to pedagogy as books. When a 1764 fire destroyed an earlier Harvard Hall and the College’s “philosophical apparatus,” for example, Hollis professor John Winthrop suspended his course in physics, mathematics, and astronomy.

South Front of Harvard Hall at Cambridge in New England (1767), an ink, pencil, and watercolor drawing on paper by Pierre du Simitière. The Philosophy Chamber was on the second floor.

Courtesy of The Library Company of Philadelphia

South Front of Harvard Hall at Cambridge in New England (1767), an ink, pencil, and watercolor drawing on paper by Pierre du Simitière. The Philosophy Chamber was on the second floor.
Courtesy of The Library Company of Philadelphia


Benjamin Franklin, A.M. 1753, while in England protesting the Stamp Act, helped Harvard secure new scientific instruments from abroad after a devastating 1764 fire. This jointed mahogany steeple (George Adams I or II, c. 1765) may have been among them. When struck with electricity from an electrical machine (see next image), the structure topples, unless grounded with a lightning rod—a Franklin invention. See video of this demonstration here.
Courtesy of the Collection of Historical Scientific Instruments. © President and Fellows of Harvard College.


Turning the crank of this cylinder electrical machine (built by Benjamin Martin, c. 1766) generated an electrostatic charge used in scientific demonstrations.
Courtesy of the Collection of Historical Scientific Instruments. © President and Fellows of Harvard College.

The Harvard Corporation thanked Franklin in 1769 for sending from London this “fine bust” (c. 1766-69), by Joseph Wilton, of William Pitt the Elder, Earl of Chatham, “that great assertor of American liberties….” “The Great Commoner” advocated for the repeal of the Stamp Act in 1766. Among Harvard’s first sculptures, this bust stood in the Philosophy Chamber in the years before the Revolution.
Harvard Art Museums. Photograph by Anthony Sigel. © President and Fellows of Harvard College

A faded sample of the bold, block-printed, and flocked wallpaper (British, 1764-66), donated by John Hancock, that hung on the Philosophy Chamber’s walls.
Harvard Library Imaging Services. © President and Fellows of Harvard College

In an essay titled “Harvard’s Teaching Cabinet,” Lasser writes that this was because “the central theories that students needed to master in order to understand the workings of nature” could not be explained without the use of “the balance, pulley, lever, screw, wedge, and inclined plane to illustrate the ‘mechanical powers’…pendulums and projectiles to show the laws of motion…and prisms to separate light into the colors of the spectrum.” Winthrop also used an orrery, a mechanical model of the solar system, to explain the “motion of the Moon round the Earth & of both round the Sun as their Center.” His class resumed in 1766, when Harvard Hall had been rebuilt and the apparatus partially replaced.

The layout of the reconstructed building, where all Harvard’s books, instruments, and collections of objects were housed above the first-floor chapel and common room, also suggests that, pedagogically, texts and objects were on equal footing: a library occupied the west room, and the Philosophy Chamber, with its elegant woodwork and flocked wallpaper (a fragment of which survives in the archives), occupied the east. George Washington visited the chamber Benjamin Franklin, then in London on a diplomatic mission, helped procure scientific instruments and Copley, even as an expatriate after the war, sought to ensure that his work was displayed there, suggesting that the importance of this space was more than purely academic (see “Facing Harvard,” November-December 2016, page 42, on the Copley paintings). And the chamber’s implications for pedagogy reverberate into the present: the idea that objects embody knowledge that texts cannot underlies the recent redesign of the Harvard Art Museums as a teaching machine for the modern University (see “Unleashing Harvard’s Art Museums,” November-December 2014, page 18). As Agassiz professor of the humanities Jennifer L. Roberts, a contributor to the exhibition that will recreate and reinterpret the Philosophy Chamber, puts it: “This is a great moment for this museum to consider its own place in the history of Harvard.”

Transatlantic Exchanges

The creation of the Philosophy Chamber (named for natural philosophy, the study of nature and the physical universe) was hardly an isolated exercise in the 1760s. Mungo Campbell, deputy director of The Hunterian, the great museum at the University of Glasgow that originated around the same time, notes that a whole range of transatlantic investigations date to this period, rooted in collections like the one founded in the 1730s at the University of Göttingen by the Hanoverian dynasty. “Göttingen was a university with a museum at its heart,” says Campbell, “guided by similar ideas that a collection should generate knowledge as readily from a Rembrandt as from insects, geological specimens, and art books.” The repositories at the Royal Society in London, at Harvard, Yale, and Princeton were all, he explains, “part of this Hano­verian world of research and teaching.” They represented a decisive movement toward ordered, taxonomically logical collections specifically gathered and catalogued to support the advancement of knowledge, says Campbell, and away from an antiquarian mode of collecting, the model on which even the British Museum had initially been formed.

After the fire of 1764 decimated Harvard’s collections, leaving nothing but the books and instruments that had been out on loan, the College published appeals throughout the colonies and in England seeking replacements. The Corporation then recorded the numerous gifts in money and kind that arrived in Cambridge, and thanked the donors. These records, some vague at best (an acknowledgement for “a copy of the figures on a rock at Taunton”), guided Lasser (see Harvard Portrait, May-June 2016, page 20) and his colleagues in finding those objects designated for the Philosophy Chamber.


After capturing the original marble sculpture Laocoön and His Sons during an invasion of Italy, the French began selling reproductions like this plaster cast of the head of Laocoön, by Jean-André Getti (c. 1803). These objects taught students about the wonders of ancient sculpture. Professor of Greek literature (and later Harvard president) Edward Everett, A.B. 1811, wrote that they hinted at the magnitude of what was lost during the destruction of Rome in antiquity.
Harvard Art Museums Department of Digital Imaging and Visual Resources. © President and Fellows of Harvard College

After capturing the original marble sculpture Laocoön and His Sons during an invasion of Italy, the French began selling reproductions like this plaster cast of the head of Laocoön, by Jean-André Getti (c. 1803). These objects taught students about the wonders of ancient sculpture. Professor of Greek literature (and later Harvard president) Edward Everett, A.B. 1811, wrote that they hinted at the magnitude of what was lost during the destruction of Rome in antiquity.
Harvard Art Museums Department of Digital Imaging and Visual Resources. © President and Fellows of Harvard College


Joseph Pope of Boston, a clockmaker, created this “grand orrery” (c. 1776-87), which is five and half feet in diameter. A model of the solar system designed to demonstrate the motions of six of the known planets and their 10 satellites, its purpose was equally to establish American prowess in science and the arts.
Courtesy of the Collection of Historical Scientific Instruments. © President and Fellows of Harvard College

The gilded statuettes that ring the mahogany case place Americans Benjamin Franklin and Massachusetts governor James Bowdoin, A.B. 1745, a noted patron of science, alongside Sir Isaac Newton.
Courtesy of the Collection of Historical Scientific Instruments. © President and Fellows of Harvard College

Rendered as clowns, acrobats, or devils, these glass “Cartesian Divers” (created by Benjamin Martin, c. 1765) dove up and down in response to pressure changes in a three-foot-long tube filled with water. As the instructor pressed imperceptibly on an elastic membrane atop the tube, the figures danced, memorably demonstrating the effect of hydrostatic pressure changes.

From left: Courtesy of the Collection of Historical Scientific Instruments. © President and Fellows of Harvard College Harvard Library Imaging Services. ©President and Fellows of Harvard College

Wedgwood jasperware medallions depicting scenes from antiquity brought the classics to life for students in the eighteenth century. Here, Thetis dips Achilles in water from the river Styx to render him invulnerable (except where she grips him by the heel). The scene had pedagogic meaning, too: in the frontispiece to Émile, Or, On Education (which entered Harvard’s library in 1774), Jean-Jacques Rousseau used the image to underscore his contention that children should be protected from the complexity of society, including formal education, until the age of 15.
Harvard Art Museums Department of Digital Imaging and Visual Resources. © President and Fellows of Harvard College

The “copy of the figures on a rock” turned out to be one of the most illuminating of Lasser’s finds. This was a tracing on paper from 1768, 11 feet long and three feet high, with inks still vibrant, of an inscription on a massive rock found in a tidal zone at the mouth of the Taunton River in southeastern Massachusetts. Lasser, with help from curators at the Peabody Museum, had found the full-scale drawing rolled up in that museum’s storage.

In the eighteenth century, the inscriptions on the rock were attributed by some scholars to Phoenician sailors. Could North America, then on the verge of recreating a new society modeled on the Athenian city-state, trace an origin to the Greeks? Or were the marks caused by erosion, the work of countless tides? As study of the rock continued, no two renderings of the inscriptions matched, though many were made. The Royal Society commissioned its own copy, so its experts could attempt to decipher the markings. Later theories centered on the Chinese, says Lasser, and then “in the nineteenth century, the Vikings.” Consensus on the markings’ meaning proved impossible.

“The drawing became the catalyst for all kinds of European, British, and French discussions about who was in North America first,” Lasser continues. “So that mysterious entry unlocked not only this extraordinary object but also this story of transatlantic communication, America’s role in global history, and Harvard’s role in creating the specimens upon which global history was built.”

Eighteenth-century attitudes toward indigenous peoples in North America and elsewhere blinded most of the scholars who studied the markings from seeing what now seems obvious: that the Wampanoag peoples of southeastern Massachusetts made them. (For more on evolving interpretations in anthropology, see the Treasure on the Peabody Museum, page 80.)

Denouement for a Collection

And then , for the Philosophy Chamber, “the end comes abruptly,” Lasser says. “They are continuing to receive donations and then in the 1810s, comes a proposal. ‘There are so many books coming in that there is no room for them all. Let’s take over the Philosophy Chamber.’ There is no record in the minutes of someone saying, ‘No, that is a terrible idea,’” he recounts. “About five years later, the Corporation contracts with a carpenter to remove the partitions that separate the library from the Philosophy Chamber to actually make it one room.”

“Why did it happen so easily?” Lasser asks rhetorically. “Harvard was growing and knowledge was breaking apart into disciplines, each taught in its own physical space. Whereas natural history, astronomy, physics, and biology were once all taught in one room, now there is a chemistry lab. [It’s] an era of specialization with professors for different fields. The idea of a room to contain the whole body of knowledge—by 1810, it is just not how they think anymore.” The centrifugal force of specialization was not limited to the academy. In Harvard’s case, collections were spun off to the natural history museum in Boston, to a coin collection at the Boston Athenaeum, and to the Massachusetts Historical Society.

At the same time, Lasser says, “The objects are decaying. Bugs are getting into taxidermy, things are breaking, scientific instruments are checked out like a book and never returned. The collection is literally crumbling.” Still, he continues, “It is not insignificant that the library takes over. Do you want to learn from things or from books? Clearly—and it is not unique [to Harvard]—the decision is to go with texts, not with coins, say, or minerals. That is another movement: that we don’t trust the objects any longer.”

Professor of natural history William Dandridge Peck prepared fish specimens by slitting them in half, removing bones, organs, eyes, and flesh, and sewing the skins to paper. Specimens like this flattened lumpfish were used to teach Linnaean classification in the Philosophy Chamber.
Courtesy of the Ichthyology Department, Museum of Comparative Zoology. Photograph by Andrew Williston. © President and Fellows of Harvard College


Professor of natural history William Dandridge Peck prepared fish specimens by slitting them in half, removing bones, organs, eyes, and flesh, and sewing the skins to paper. Specimens like this flattened lumpfish were used to teach Linnaean classification in the Philosophy Chamber .
Courtesy of the Ichthyology Department, Museum of Comparative Zoology. Photograph by Andrew Williston. © President and Fellows of Harvard College

In 1778, a “Miss Meriam” donated a flattened rattlesnake skin like this one for the study of natural history.
Courtesy of the Herpetology Department, Museum of Comparative Zoology. Photograph by Jeremiah Trimble. © President and Fellows of Harvard College

This copy (1719-20) by American artist John Smibert of Anthony van Dyck’s Cardinal Guido Bentivoglio (1623) was donated by artist John Trumbull, whose portrait of George Washington also hung in the Philosophy Chamber. The Bentivoglio was both given and received with the hope “that this copy will be highly useful to beginners.”
Harvard Art Museums Department of Digital Imaging and Visual Resources. © President and Fellows of Harvard College


More than 800 minerals were housed in a custom cabinet 18 feet long, perhaps the largest piece of case furniture in New England at the time, and the largest object from the Chamber to remain missing. Shown (from left) are fluorite, barite sulfate, silver, and barite.
Courtesy of the Mineralogical and Geological Museum. Photographs by Theresa Smith. © President and Fellows of Harvard College

Vesuvius Erupting at Night (1767), by Pierre-Jacques Volaire, united art with science in the service of pedagogy. A similar work, now lost, hung above the fireplace near the bust of the Earl of Chatham, replacing the John Singleton Copley portrait of despised royal governor Sir Francis Bernard, from which the heart was cut out in the dead of night in 1768.
Courtesy of Compton Verney Art Gallery and Park, Warwickshire, U.K.

The shift to pedagogy based on texts and lectures was swift and decisive. Jennifer Roberts points out that a collection of books in a library “allows you to imagine that you have created a truly comprehensive collection of knowledge in a much smaller space” than that required for a collection of objects or instruments. In this sense, “The book is a kind of economical information technology that can masquerade as a substitute for the objects. I imagine that in 1816, they are able to think, ‘We are getting rid of the actual natural history specimens, but we have all these books on natural history, that is what is most important.’ There is this kind of abstraction of knowledge into information that has been going on for the last 200 years.” (Read more about her views on working with objects—focusing on a Copley painting—in “The Power of Patience,” November-December 2013, page 40.)

The specialization of knowledge also affects the kind of knowledge students are expected to acquire. “Whereas anyone can read a book, presumably, not anyone can look at a piece of feldspar and tell you what it is and what it means,” Roberts says. “Suddenly these objects are no longer universally legible, and there is no longer an ambition to have them be universally legible. An eighteenth-century Harvard student, for example, might be expected to identify a mineral specimen. But by the twentieth century,” she explains, “only a geology major would be expected to do that.”

Art historians are still trained to extract information and meaning from otherwise mute objects. Outside the realm of visual culture, however, such skills have become rare. Now, that may be changing. Roberts describes a renaissance in object-based teaching, one that recognizes that “there are forms of intelligence embedded in interactions with objects that aren’t straightforwardly translatable into text.” One such form is the kind of tactile, experiential knowledge that a skilled artisan acquires by making things. “The example that I use,” she says, “is to ask students how they would write down the instructions for driving a stick shift. It is a bodily knowledge of pressure, sequence, and movement that is central to the way you exist in the world if you drive this kind of car, but that can’t be efficiently translated into text.”


W. Silas Dinsmoor, George Washington’s appointed agent to the Cherokee people, donated a stone pipe bowl like this one to the Philosophy Chamber. Pipes, thought to promote mutual understanding, were often smoked during treaty negotiations. Dinsmoor’s donation also memorialized the imminent decline of Cherokee culture.
Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, PM# 99-12-70/53559 (digital file 99170068). © President and Fellows of Harvard College


W. Silas Dinsmoor, George Washington’s appointed agent to the Cherokee people, donated a stone pipe bowl like this one to the Philosophy Chamber. Pipes, thought to promote mutual understanding, were often smoked during treaty negotiations. Dinsmoor’s donation also memorialized the imminent decline of Cherokee culture.
Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, PM# 99-12-10/53119 (digital file 60740101). © President and Fellows of Harvard College


Objects brought home by the Columbia—the first American ship to circumnavigate the globe—and donated by the owners and crew include this mahiole,a helmet made from 10,000 feathers plucked from living honey creepers, small, rare birds native to Hawaii. Featherworks like this are among the most intricately crafted objects in the collection.
Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, PM# 99-12-70/53559 (digital file 99170068). © President and Fellows of Harvard College


Sailors on the Columbia were fascinated by the wooden lower-lip ornaments worn by indigneous women in the Pacific Northwest. The use of these labrets to extend the lower lip is illustrated by the wooden doll, which was probably made specifically for trade with Western visitors.
From left: Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, PM# 99-12-10/53093 (digital file 60741707). ©President and Fellows of Harvard College and Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, PM# 87-18-10/41093 (digital file 99320183). © President and Fellows of Harvard College


Paintings (c. 1770-1790) by Agostino Brunias, an Italian artist working in the Caribbean, depict free and enslaved women of mixed and African descent. The works, donated by the Boston-born attorney general of St. Kitts, idealize plantation life, showing a French Mulatress of St. Dominica and a Negro Woman and Mulatresses and Negro Woman Bathing, as a white peeping Tom observes. Labels on the backs of these paintings suggest they may have been used to teach theories of racial classification in the natural-history curriculum.
From left: Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, PM# 975-5-30/9416b (digital file 99320188). © President and Fellows of Harvard College Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, PM# 975-5-30/9416d (digital file 99320190). ©President and Fellows of Harvard College


The fame of Dighton Rock, a 40-ton boulder in southeastern Massachusetts that lay in the mouth of the Taunton River, outlasted the Philosophy Chamber itself, because the inscriptions on its face were thought to be key to understanding the peopling of America. In this 1853 daguerreotype taken by Horatio King of Seth Eastman, an artist active in recording Native American life, the rock face may have been “chalked” to enhance the visibility of the inscriptions.
Collection of the Massachusetts Historical Society, Boston


In the eighteenth century, an indigenous origin for these petroglyphs was thought unlikely. The life-size, 11-foot-long by three-foot-high tracing (above)—which Stephen Sewall, A.B. 1761, made of the inscriptions in 1768—was seen variously as evidence of visits by Norsemen, ancient Phoenicians, East Asians, Egyptians, or Israelites. Yale president Ezra Stiles cited the carvings as evidence that Native Americans were the cursed children of Canaan destined by biblical prophecy to be the slaves of the white colonists.
Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, PM# 967-28-10/45474 (digital file 99270006). © President and Fellows of Harvard College

Even in philosophy and literary studies, Roberts continues, an approach akin to the art historians’ has arisen under the catchall term of “new materialism.” Philosophers are allowing that “maybe there is philosophical knowledge in objects” and the field should not be only about “an ability to abstract away from things. So, there is a lot of movement right now in the academy toward unlocking the knowledge and information that is embedded in material objects, things that aren’t textual or numerical.”

More professors are accordingly integrating forms of experiential learning into their teaching, she says. “Instead of having students sit and listen to you talk for an hour, you give them something to do with their hands, a puzzle to solve, some kind of multidimensional experience. In a way,” she says, “we are circling back to this eighteenth-century moment, when it was assumed that if you wanted to understand a complex physical law, the most effective way to learn that was from a scientific demonstration in a classroom, where the instructor would show something or provide a bodily experience.”

And so, at this moment of pedagogical rediscovery, after 200 years in obscurity, the “lost museum”—itself rediscovered—will reopen on May 19 as an exhibition at the Harvard Art Museums, with close to 100 of the original objects on display. (The exhibition will travel to The Hunterian in 2018.) Viewers who become especially intrigued, take note: many of the objects are still missing.

Jonathan Shaw ’89 is managing editor of this magazine, and Jennifer Carling is its art director.


Massive Rare Viking Ship Revealed by Radar - HISTORY

Inch by inch, they gently pick through the soil in search of thousand-year-old relics.

Racing against on-setting mould yet painstakingly meticulous, archaeologists in Norway are exhuming a rare Viking ship grave in hopes of uncovering the secrets within.

Who is buried here? Under which ritual? What is left of the burial offerings? And what can they tell us about the society that lived here?

Now reduced to tiny fragments almost indistinguishable from the turf that covers it, the 20-metre (65-foot) wooden longship raises a slew of questions.

The team of archaeologists is rushing to solve at least some of the mystery before the structure is entirely ravaged by microscopic fungi.

It's an exhilarating task: there hasn't been a Viking ship to dig up in more than a century.

The last was in 1904 when the Oseberg longship was excavated, not far away on the other side of the Oslo Fjord, in which the remains of two women were discovered among the finds.

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"We have very few burial ships," says the head of the dig, Camilla Cecilie Wenn of the University of Oslo's Museum of Cultural History.

"I'm incredibly lucky, few archaeologists get such an opportunity in their career."

Under a giant grey and white tent placed in the middle of ancient burial grounds near the southeastern town of Halden, a dozen workers in high visibility vests kneel or lie on the ground, examining the earth.​

Buried underground, the contours of the longship were detected in 2018 by geological radar equipment, as experts searched the known Viking site.​

When the first test digs revealed the ship's advanced state of decomposition, the decision was taken to quickly excavate it.

Viking VIP

So far, only parts of the keel have been dug out in reasonable condition.

Analyses of the pieces have determined that the ship was probably raised on land around the ninth century, placed in a pit and buried under a mound of earth as a final resting place.​

But for whom? "If you're buried with a ship, then it's clear you were a VIP in your lifetime," Wenn says.

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A king? A queen? A Viking nobleman, known as a jarl? The answer may lie in the bones or objects yet to be found – weapons, jewels, vessels, tools, etc – that are typical in graves from the Viking Age, from the mid-eighth to mid-11th centuries.

​The site has however been disturbed several times, accelerating the ship's disintegration and reducing the chance of finding relics.

At the end of the 19th century, the burial mound was razed to make space for farmland, entirely destroying the upper part of the hull and damaging what is believed to have been the funeral chamber.​

It's also possible that the grave may have been plundered long before that, by other Vikings keen to get their hands on some of the precious burial offerings and to symbolically assert their power and legitimacy.

Animal bones

So far the archaeologists' bounty is pretty meagre: lots of iron rivets used for the boat's assembly, most heavily corroded over time, as well as a few bones.

"These bones are too big to be human," says field assistant Karine Fure Andreassen, as she leans over a large, orange-tinged bone.

​"This is not a Viking chief we're looking at unfortunately, it's probably a horse or cattle."

​"It's a sign of power. You were so rich that an animal could be sacrificed to be put in your grave," she explains.


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LEGENDS: The Lost Year of Pistol Pete

When he saw the young coed coming up the hill, her arms full of books, Pete Maravich reached into his Volkswagen and grabbed his basketball, tucking it under his arm. Without the ball, he was shy, reserved, soft-spoken. With it, he was confident, bombastic, brash.

And for this occasion, he would need all the confidence he could muster. Freshmen at LSU in the fall of 1966 were the lowest of the low. The upperclassmen forced them to buzz their heads, and the only cover for their bad haircuts were ill-fitting beanies, whose tiny bills, when upturned, revealed their last names sandwiched between the words “Dawg” and “Sir” – an accessory this particular Dawg had no interest in donning at the moment.

Instead, he slid on his sunglasses and leaned against his Volkswagen, parked at the top of the small hill overseeing the north side of Tiger Stadium, just across the street from the basketball offices in the Gym Armory. When the young lady was near enough, he leaned against the car and called out to her.

Pulling his glasses back, he replied: “I’m Pete Maravich.”

Her face remained unchanged.

“Aren’t you a track star or something?” she asked, before continuing to class and leaving her would-be suitor in the dust, as humbled and embarrassed as the many defenders he’d soon torch time and time again in a legendary college career.

It was, quite likely, the last time Pete Maravich went unrecognized on LSU’s campus.

Before he’d scored a single one of his 3,667 varsity points – then and still and probably forever an NCAA Division 1 record – before he’d zipped any behind-the-back, between-the-legs, or no-look dimes, before he’d pulled on the now-retired No. 23 jersey and rocked his trademarked floppy socks and flowing locks, before his name adorned the Assembly Center, before the Assembly Center was even built, and even still before he’d earned the signature Pistol nickname, Pete Maravich was simply a 6-foot-4, 160 pound freshman with a bad haircut and mediocre game with the ladies.

In 1966, when Maravich arrived in Baton Rouge, freshmen were still ineligible for varsity competition, so the 741 points, 187 rebounds, and 124 assists he piled up in the ’66-67 season aren’t included in his historic numbers. His team’s 17-1 record is little remembered by those who weren’t a part of it, and his jersey for that season alone – No. 24 – is a detail lost to all but a handful of photographs and sharp memories.

And basketball, well, basketball was the bastard of LSU athletics, a bridge between football and spring football that most, excluding only the hoopiest of hoop heads, opted to bypass.

Pete Maravich changed all of that. Fifty years ago, he performed a miracle. Before he transformed the game on a global level, helping to infuse mainstream basketball with the panache of the Globetrotters, bridging the NBA of Russell and Wilt’s to the NBA of Magic and Larry, Pete transformed the game on a local level.

As a freshman at LSU, he revived a dead sport in a football-obsessed culture with room for little else. He stylized a stale game, long restricted by traditionalism, as only a showman a century ahead of his time could. He packed thousands to a foul-smelling arena for afternoon tipoffs whose results mattered little or less. He transformed apathy into awe, one magical bounce of the ball at a time.

Perhaps most miraculous of all is that it nearly never happened.

THE BULLET WAS barely out of Jim Corbett’s chest when he found The Pistol. LSU’s athletic director left the hospital on April 20, 1966, less than two weeks after taking a slug to the sternum, in a bizarre shooting incident at a motel that nearly cost the life of the man responsible for bringing the Maravich family to Baton Rouge.

According to the police report, Corbett, who had a history of heart problems, left a local night club at 11:25 p.m. and was driving home when he felt chest pains. That’s when he pulled over and approached the window of the Traveler’s Motel at 6813 Jefferson Highway, reportedly seeking assistance.

Inside the room were O.S. Coleman, a Sorrento plant worker, and a female companion. When Coleman saw Corbett in the window, he pulled out his 22-caliber derringer and fired at Corbett’s chest. Corbett fled the scene in his car, crashing it minutes later at the intersection of LaSalle and Audubon, where four teenagers found him. Doctors later said Corbett was 10 minutes from death, but after four blood transfusions and a few days of recovery, he headed home, a little worse for the wear.

There would be no rest for the weary. Two days before the shooting, Corbett had accepted the resignation of basketball coach Frank Truitt, who’d left LSU, it was later reported, because he was prohibited from recruiting black players. Corbett was a former NBC Sports television executive who believed strongly that basketball could be a revenue generator, but Truitt’s sudden departure left him without a coach and with little to entice a new one. LSU’s facilities were abysmal, and plans for a new 14,500-seat assembly center appeared to be stuck in the legislative mud. The team, meanwhile, had enjoyed little success since Bob Pettit’s departure in the mid-50s, with just one winning season in 12 years.

Candidates, Corbett knew, would not be easy to come by. His first chocie, Vanderbilt’s Roy Skinner, whom Corbett invited to his home for a few days before offering him the job, turned him down. As Skinner, the first to coach a black player in the SEC, prepared to board his flight back to Nashville, he crossed paths with the next of Corbett’s candidates, who’d just stepped off a flight from Raleigh.

Press Maravich had appeared on Corbett’s radar at the recommendation of Haskell Cohen, then the P.R. director for the NBA and the creator the All-Star game. Cohen knew a thing or two about branding basketball, and he’d known Corbett from his days at NBC. He was among Corbett’s first calls, as soon as his health permitted, in the search for Truitt’s successor.

“Corbett said he was in the market for a basketball coach, and he would appreciate some suggestions,” Bud Johnson, then the sports information director for LSU athletics, recalls. “And (Cohen) said, ‘I know where you can get a good coach and a good player.’”

Press had taken over for the legendary Everett Case ahead of the 1964-65 season and subsequently won the ACC Tournament title. In two decades of coaching, he’d built a reputation among his peers as a basketball junkie with a knack for X’s and O’s. Among his frequent callers were John Wooden, who’d often pick his brain on various strategies, including the high-low offense Wooden would make famous with Lew Alcindor at UCLA. He’d proved at Clemson a decade earlier that he could be relatively successful in a football-first setting.

And, as Cohen knew all too well, Press had a kid who could flat out ball. Pete was named Parade All-American in 1965 – Cohen was a longtime Parade contributing editor – after scoring 32 points per game at Broughton High School. His books and his build needed work, however, and at Press’ insistence, Pete spent a year at prep school working on his academics and trying to add weight, averaging 33.5 points per game at Southwood College in the process.

Pete’s scoring average increased at Southwood, but his standardized test marks did not. He couldn’t crack the requisite 800 SAT score required for admittance into ACC schools. Playing for Press in Raleigh was out, but Pete had his fair share of suitors. West Virginia, Kentucky and UCLA showed interest, and the prospect of following in the footsteps of Jerry West was particularly attractive to Pete.

It was less attractive to Press. He, understandably, wanted to coach his son in college, a dream he’d long harbored but one that was slowly slipping away because of the ACC’s rigorous standards.

Then, Corbett called. He flew Press down for a visit, ensuring that assistant coach Jay McCreary gave him a less than thorough tour of campus and the hoops facilities.

“McCreary was a good company man, and he did his best to conceal the negatives as he drove Dad around the sprawling campus,” Pete wrote in his memoir, Heir to a Dream. “At the time, Dad didn’t think much about it as his tour guide accelerated the car and cruised past the John M. Parker Coliseum. He would discover later that a walking horse show had all rights to the Coliseum until two weeks before Dad would debut his Tiger team. His practice sessions would have to take place in a high school gym with a short floor.

“Indifference such as this seemed to spark the drive in Dad to want to succeed all the more.”

Press entertained the offer. It would open the door to coach Pete, and he loved a challenge. He’d once built a gym from scratch while head coach at Davis and Elkins, clearing the ground himself in a tractor borrowed from a neighbor. But at the time of his interview with LSU, he was also being courted by the NBA’s Baltimore Bullets, who were talking serious dough. With nothing to lose, he made Corbett an outlandish offer: he’d come to LSU, but it would cost LSU a five-year contract valued at $15,000 a year – more than double his salary at N.C. State.

“Dad wasn’t looking for another rebuilding challenge when he first interviewed for the LSU position,” wrote Pete, “but he needed more pay. He was still in debt and having to borrow a hundred dollars a month from the NC State football coach just to pay monthly utilities. Dad didn’t tell Corbett this information. He didn’t have to. Jim Corbett wanted the best coach he could find, and he knew my Dad was his man.”

Press accepted the LSU job in May of 1966, and immediately began recruiting. His primary target, of course, was Pete, but the younger Maravich was less certain than his father about the move south. He’d grown intent on playing for Bucky Waters at West Virginia, “a basketball school,” in his mind. Pete’s reluctance to sign a scholarship with LSU soon became a source of friction in the family. Sternly, Press informed Pete, with a few choice words, he’d not be welcome home if he left for a destination other than Baton Rouge. Pete didn’t flinch at first, but eventually offered a counter to his dad’s deal: he’d go to LSU – if his father bought him a car.

Pete’s scholarship papers remained unsigned for weeks, but by June, Press was telling local reporters Pete would be a Tiger. By July, Pete had signed his grant in aid. And by August, he’d arrived on campus – driving his new Volkswagen.

BUD JOHNSON COULDN’T believe his eyes.

This is him? he thought. This is Pete Maravich?

Johnson was a basketball guy. He knew about Pete long before Press took the LSU job, knew he was a Parade All-American, knew he put up monster numbers in high school and prep school.

Johnson had even spent all summer hyping up Pete’s arrival with his father. As soon as Press was hired, Johnson called a press conference in New Orleans, bringing together cynical journalists with little basketball interest. Their suspicion was only enhanced when the new coach couldn’t stop jabbering about his son.

“He’s in the superstar category,” Press told the press. “Pete can dribble, shoot, make the plays, is competitive and has desire and pride. He’s great. And I’m speaking as a coach. Not a father.”

Press also guaranteed a more entertaining brand of basketball, promising points would be in ample supply.

“On offense, we like to explode,” Press said. “You might say our offense is a series of explosions.”

The media remained unconvinced, both of the style and the star. And they weren’t the only ones holding reservations. When Press invited Johnson to watch Pete put on a basketball clinic during his Basketball Theory summer course for physical education master’s students at LSU, Johnson was similarly skeptical.

“He was not physically imposing,” Johnson recalls. “Rail thin. I thought, Jeez, this guy’s gonna get killed in the SEC.”

Pete was listed in the team roster as 6-foot-4, 165 pounds, and that weight figure was probably generous. The great sportswriter Peter Finney said he was so skinny, he could “tread water in a test tube.” His gangly limbs only added to the effect. Pete wasn’t impressive at first sight.

Until he picked up the ball.

“Once he started handling the ball,” Johnson says, “you knew he was something special. He was so fluid. Nothing was mechanical about him. It was all one, smooth motion. The ball was a part of him.”

Johnson immediately thought back to Boston Celtics’ legend Bob Cousy. Four years prior, at the invitation of the Louisiana High School Basketball Coaches Association, Cousy had come to Baton Rouge to put on a clinic, in the very same Gym Armory Johnson was now standing in.

“I thought, This guy is so much better than Cousy, it’s not even close!” Johnson says. “Cousy was mechanical. Pete was smooth, fluid. I thought, Good grief. This guy is going to be a sensation. And he hadn’t even taken a shot at that point. But his ball handling and his passing was so elevated, so beyond anything. It was unlike anybody else I’d seen.”

Still, Pete arrived in Baton Rouge to little fanfare at a time when Louisiana was, at best, indifferent to basketball. Johnson recalls how years earlier, hall of fame coach Pete Newell, who was just coming off an NCAA title as head coach of Cal, came to Baton Rouge for a coaching clinic. Despite Newell’s success, organizers realized on the day of the event no one was going to show up to The Capitol House Ballroom to hear him speak. Frantically, they phoned Johnson and other LSU staffers to come and pose as coaches, a last-ditch effort to fill the seats and minimize their embarrassment.

“Basketball was a stepchild,” Johnson says. “It didn’t have a big following. We sold about 50 season tickets a year. And I owned three of them.”

If interest in basketball was low, interest in bad basketball was lower. Since Pettit’s departure after the 1953-54 season, LSU had won only 36 percent of its games, with an average record of 9-16 over 12 seasons. The scents of horse and cow manure clung to the Parker Coliseum year round. Victories were few. Fans were fewer.

“When I came to town, there were no brass bands and no ticker tape,” Pete said. “Football was in the air and as far as Louisiana was concerned, that was all that mattered…Maybe if I had been a halfback they would have noticed, but no one cared about basketball. It was considered a noncontact sport for softies who were a little light in their loafers.”

[su_pullquote align=”right” was a stepchild,” Johnson says. “It didn’t have a big following. We sold about 50 season tickets a year. And I owned three of them.” [/su_pullquote]

“Basketball wasn’t an afterthought,” adds Rich Hickman, who arrived as a freshman with Maravich that fall from Aliquippa, Penn., the Maravich’s hometown, “because no one even thought about basketball. When football season was over, it was football offseason.”

On the gridiron, Charles McClendon’s Tigers were coming off an 8-3 season in 1965, capped off by a Cotton Bowl victory over No. 3 Arkansas that snapped the Razorbacks’ 22-game winning streak. The win earned LSU a top-10 finish in the polls and plenty of hype for the ’66 season.

“LSU was having terrific success in football,” says Greg Bernbrock, LSU’s freshman basketball coach in 1966 and an assistant retained from the previous regime. “We had a big mountain to climb in basketball, and everybody knew that. When Pete first came, he wasn’t ballyhooed that much.

The Coliseum was off limits to the basketball team until Thanksgiving, so Pete and the other Tiger hoopsters spent much of the fall in the Gym Armory, which was open to the general student population. There, his teammates adjusted to his no-look passes and uncanny range, while his classmates caught glimpses of his genius for the first time.

“It probably only took 24 hours for some of the students in there working out to watch this guy,” says Bernbrock, “and man, the word spread like wildfire.”

As onlookers marveled, participants did their best to avoid injury. Pete’s fellow freshmen learned the hard way to always be on alert. His passes came from nowhere, fast as bullets. Broken fingers and bloody noses were common for several weeks.

“You could tell right away – this dude was good,” Hickman says. “You didn’t have to second guess. You saw right away the things he could do with the basketball. He was one of a kind. You had to be on your toes and expect anything at any time. You never knew when you were going to get a pass. When he wasn’t looking, he had a sense of where you were and who was the open guy. You had to be prepared at all times. It made us better and smarter.”

[su_box title=”Maravich By the Numbers” box_color=”#461d7c”]Pete Maravich’s Division 1 scoring records, achieved in just three seasons and without the benefit of a three-point line, will likely last forever. Now just imagine if his freshman year had counted.
[table delimiter=”|”]

Stat|Career (1967-1970)|Freshman Season (1966-67)|Total

Field Goals Made|1,387|273|1,660

Free Throws Made|893|195|1,088

60+ Point Games|4|1|5[/table][/su_box]

Press anticipated such a learning curve. He’d watched his players at Clemson and N.C. State suffer the same injuries when playing pickup games with his son. Upon taking the LSU job, he’d made it a point to target smart, athletic recruits who could both keep up with and fit alongside his son. He planned to play up-tempo, and he needed players around Pete who could pass, rebound and finish when he drew his inevitable double teams.

“We specifically recruited role players,” says Bernbrock. “We made it very clear when we recruited them that we had an immense talent on hand. We were honest in all of our recruiting, and it worked well. We found and signed players and sold them on the concept that we were going to have a tremendous scorer here.”

Press wisely targeted overlooked prospects used to playing with stars – and used to winning. Finding talented players willing to sacrifice shots would be a challenge, he knew, so he went after guys accustomed to it already. Hickman had prepped alongside Chad Calabria, an all-state performer who went on to star at Iowa. Jeff Tribbett hailed from basketball-mad Indiana and starred next to future Purdue All-American Rick Mount at Lebanon High School.

“I just wanted to play,” Tribbett says. “To put together a really good team, you have to have some role players. In most cases, if you’re going to a Division 1 school and playing, then you were probably the best player on your high school team. But if you get five, six, seven guys in a recruiting class, you can’t play all those guys. Somebody’s going to have to figure out if they want to play, where they want to play and how they’re going to play.”

The class assembled, Press and Bernbrock quickly devised a three-guard offense, essentially unheard of at the time, when two guards, two forwards and a center were the standard. Tribbett, Hickman and Maravich lined up in the backcourt, with Lamont and Drew Corley inside. A revolutionary offense befitting a revolutionary player.

And yet still, not everyone paying attention was convinced.

“There was a lot of skepticism: he’s a coaches’ son, he’s skinny, he’s a hot dog, does all these things with the ball, he shoots a lot,” Johnson says. “There was a lot of skepticism early. He had made Parade All-America, but because nobody had seen him play, there was a little skepticism and disbelief that he was the real deal. I think even some of the varsity had that attitude, until they scrimmaged against him and saw what he could do with the ball.”

When the freshmen blitzed the upperclassmen in the final preseason tuneup, behind 49 points from Maravich, it was clear they had a winning formula. Press soon turned his attention to the upperclassmen, and handed the reins to Bernbrock.

“Press was obviously anxious for Pete to develop,” Bernbrock says. “That was a big year. He was going to be playing varsity next year. But he was 100 percent behind our relationship. We started to run an offense centered around him, one that he would use as he moved into the varsity. We were so abundantly confident that we were going to win every night out, it just became like clockwork.”

And word was spreading. Newspapermen began taking their lunch breaks late in the day to come watch the freshmen practice. One of the local television stations filmed one session, further multiplying the word of mouth across the city. Coaches and general observers of the sport soon became regulars at workouts, drinking in every minute of magic. When Carl Stewart, then the coach at predominately black McKinley High, saw Pete for the first time, he was floored.

“My God,” Stewart said. “He’s one of us.”

LSU’s 1966-67 freshman team. Jeff Tribbet (kneeling, second from left), Rich Hickman (kneeling, third from left), and Pete Maravich (standing, far right)

THE UPPERCLASSMEN WARNED Rich Hickman to keep his hopes low.

Hickman, like most of the freshmen of LSU basketball’s 1966-67 squad, hailed from basketball country. Despite attending a relatively small high school, spectators numbering in the thousands were ordinary in Pennsylvania. For Tribbett, a Hoosier, five-figure drawings were the norm for the biggest schools.

They were not the norm for LSU.

“We had heard from the upperclassmen: ‘Hey, don’t be disappointed,’” Hickman says. ‘“When you come out of the locker room and there’s only a couple hundred people there, don’t be disappointed.’”

“But when we came out for warm ups, the place was packed.”

Word had spread. They packed the Cow Palace on Dec. 1, 1966 for LSU’s opener vs. Southeastern Louisiana, hoping for a firsthand glimpse of Pete Maravich, to see if he really was worth the price of admission.

Turns out, he wasn’t. He was worth far more.

Maravich scored 50 in his debut, adding 14 rebounds and 11 assists, as the Baby Bengals routed the Lions, 119-70. Hickman added 22. Tribbett, 16. Lamont tossed in 11 points and 14 boards of his own. The numbers were astounding, but it was Maravich’s showmanship that, in Benbrock’s words, “set the place on fire.”

“He kept the crowd in a constant uproar with his dribbling and passing, which kept the defense in a state of near-panic,” read the recap in the following day’s State-Times.

“I’d been waiting for this night,” Pete said. “I passed behind my back, through my legs, and over my shoulders. In one night I tried to turn all the basketball skeptics into disciples, exposing them to a basketball game elevated from the normal sluggish, controlled tempo to a wide-open, catch-us-if-you-can style that our young team quickly installed.”

It worked. The fans, all 8,000 of them, were in a veritable frenzy. The freshmen left the floor to a standing ovation, and the fans didn’t sit back down. Instead, they followed them out the door, a frequent occurrence all season for the 3-23 varsity squad.

“The fans were going crazy,” Hickman recalls. “It was a heckuva way to start your career in college. After the game, they introduced all the freshmen players. I thought I’d played in front of big crowds in high school. This was better than that. Goosebumps everywhere.

“In the dressing room, we were on a high that dope couldn’t get you that high.”

Soon, Maravich mania settled in across Baton Rouge. Fans who’d previously never attended a game were calling LSU, looking for tickets. Governor John McKeithen, already a basketball fan, became a regular, sitting next to Press while the freshmen played and leaving with the rest of the crowds before the varsity game. The athletic department had to reorganize its staffing efforts – two ticket takers were no longer sufficient. Campus security had more traffic to direct between games than after the varsity.

In one night, Pete shifted the landscape of the entire city – literally.

“People started buying so many basketball goals, sporting goods stores couldn’t keep basketballs and goals in stock,” says Johnson. “You’d drive to work one day, pass a driveway on the way to work, on the way back there was a basketball goal that wasn’t there that morning.”

To be sure, Pete had his detractors – still. They were few, but vocal. His flashy style entertained the masses, but miffed old-school fans who swore by the game’s traditional notions.

“The traditionalists didn’t really like that,” Hickman says. “Pete got called hot dog, show boat. Those of us who played with him thought it was great. It upped our game.”

The most vocal criticism of Pete’s play came from New Orleans. One Times-Picayune writer disingenuously worried that the “ballyhoo” around Pete would “do irreparable harm to the young fellow in future years” and, in the next sentence, wrote his game didn’t “rate on the same level with some of the lads who are playing on the Tulane varsity.” (Seriously. He wrote that.)

“The teams in New Orleans, Loyola and Tulane, were nonbelievers,” says Johnson. “They didn’t think this kid was that good. They thought it was all smoke and mirrors and hoop-la. Some of the writers would even say he was overrated.”

Then came scoring performances of 34 against Loyola, 36 against Tulane, 31 and a game-winning shot in overtime against Tulane again, and finally 50 points in a 105-59 win over Loyola, just days after scoring 66 against the Baton Rouge Hawks, a local amateur team made up mostly of former players from neighboring colleges.

“Basketball all of a sudden became a heck of a lot more recognized in Baton Rouge,” says Tribbett.

As Pete’s celebrity grew, his teammates say, his ego didn’t. Some of that was environmental. LSU still required freshmen to participate in ROTC courses in 1966. The haircuts and headgear were natural inhibitors. Some of it was simply Pete’s nature. He could goof off and relax with his closest friends, but he kept his circle small, content to let his game speak for itself.

“He was a little shy at first and reserved,” says Bernbrock. “In some ways, he was pretty humble. He had that immense self-confidence, but he wasn’t out trying to promote himself. He proved it by doing.”

“Pete was just, at that point, one of the guys,” adds Hickman. “The freshman year, we did everything together. There was a nucleus of us that were family. Where one went, we all went. There was no animosity whatsoever.”

Pete was the only freshman with a car, and the drinking age was 18, so his teammates often had to encourage him to drive them around to the local watering holes. It wasn’t that Pete lacked thirst – he would speak and write openly on his troubles with alcohol later in life.

“Pete didn’t go out much because he hated that damn beanie,” says Hickman. “He thought it was the worst thing in the world.”

On the court, Pete was the picture of confidence. Away from it, he was a typical 18-year-old male, still sorting out his worldview and figuring out how to function without a basketball in his hand.

“I can’t say he was a hell of a lot different than the rest of us,” says Tribbett. “You’re exploring your life at that point in your life. It’s the first time you’ve totally been away from home. You’re totally on your own.

“Thank God for basketball and the structure it brought,” he laughs. “Dear God, we could have all gone off the deep end.”

By season’s end, LSU’s freshman team was 17-0, following a 119-98 romping of Ole Miss in which Pete scored 45 points, grabbed 15 rebounds and dished out nine assists – just another average day on the job. With the schedule finished, Press added one last game at Tennessee, whose freshman team was also enjoying a stellar season. It was both a final tough test for the Baby Bengals and a rare road game for a team that spent most of its time in Baton Rouge. Press had designs on prepping his first-year phenoms for the rigors of SEC travel they’d encounter the next year, and Tennessee and its massive Stokely Center was the perfect stage for such a final exam.

“It was like one of those suspended in time shots,” says Bernbrock. “It went around a couple of times and just popped out.”

Pete, understandably, was dejected afterward. The memory of the lone loss of his freshman season stayed with him for years.

“Losing was like a knife in my heart,” he said. “Inside, I knew I wasn’t much of a sport if I couldn’t take a loss once in a while, but I had conditioned myself for so long to be only a winner so anything less was unacceptable. The Tennessee game was a particularly personal disaster since I felt I had let down my team, the fans, the school, my Dad, and of course myself. All I could think of was a blemished record: 17-1, and I considered the one loss all my fault. The fact that I was double- and triple-teamed the entire night was no excuse.”

After the game, Pete went missing. The freshmen had taken the bus over with the rest of the team, but as the upperclassmen squared off against the varsity Volunteers, Pete was nowhere to be found. Only once the game ended and the team returned to its hotel did they discover Pete had left after the game, walking the full two miles back to the hotel. He’d averaged 43.6 points, 10.4 rebounds and 6.9 assists per game, helping set 39 individual or team records for freshmen. But the number that mattered most was the lone loss.

“The year taught me more lessons,” he said, “though accepting a loss wasn’t one of them.”

OVER THE NEXT three seasons, Pete Maravich would rewrite the record books – first at LSU, then in the SEC, and finally in the NCAA. Though less has been made of his professional career, he led the NBA in scoring in the 1970s with 15,948 points from 1970 to 1980.

But perhaps Pete’s most improbable legacy is the one he left on Baton Rouge. When the Maravich family arrived in 1966, they knew bringing basketball to the forefront would be difficult, both in the city and throughout the rest of the state, too. It was a challenge Press and Pete both embraced.

“Press instilled upon us, ‘We need to rebuild basketball. Not only at LSU, but across Louisiana,’” says Hickman. “We knew the culture, and we had to change that culture. And Pete was the right one to do it.”

Pete’s impact was both immediate and long-term. Instantly, ticket sales skyrocketed for LSU basketball. Ahead of Pete’s sophomore season, the athletic department had to create a special order card for the first time in program history.

“We were able to increase the attraction of basketball in Baton Rouge,” says Tribbett. “I don’t think we ever played in a stadium that wasn’t sold out. That wasn’t because of Jeff Tribbett or Rich Hickman. That was because of Pete Maravich.”

The influx of cash into the coffers of the athletic department also paved the way for the construction of the Assembly Center – posthumously named in Pete’s honor. The project might never have moved from the drawing board to implementation if not for Pete.

He also changed the city socio-politically. It’s easy to draw the line from Pete to the integration of black basketball players at LSU. Press parlayed Pete’s play and popularity into the political capital needed to recruit black players into the program, signing Collis Temple Jr., LSU’s first African-American player, in 1970, just as Pete’s career in purple and gold wrapped up.

[su_pullquote align=”right” don’t think we ever played in a stadium that wasn’t sold out. That wasn’t because of Jeff Tribbett or Rich Hickman. That was because of Pete Maravich.” – Jeff Tribbett, former Maravich freshman teammate [/su_pullquote]

In the long term, Pete also ushered in a new era of basketball, popularizing the fast break a decade before Magic Johnson and the Showtime Lakers. His fancy passing, fluid ball-handling, and fantastic shot-making were ahead of his time – and probably ahead of today’s game, too.

“What guys do today, that was all Pete Maravich,” says Tribbett. “Pete Maravich did that back when nobody else did. He brought that whole aspect to the game back in the ’60s.”

It’s why Pete, as much as any athlete who has ever lived, and certainly more than any to ever suit up for LSU, fits the Sandlot definition of a legend: “Heroes get remembered, but legends never die.” Pete passed in 1988, the victim of a long undetected heart defect, but his legacy is and forever will be very much alive.

It’s alive every time Steph Curry hits a 30-footer. Pete did that. It’s alive every time LeBron James throws a no-look pass. Pete did that, too. It’s alive every time basketball marvels us, captures our imagination, reminds us we all have moments of magic inside of us, ready to manifest themselves in whatever forms we desire. For Pete Maravich, that magic didn’t start in 1966. That’s just when it took center stage, for all the world to witness, starting with Baton Rouge.

For LSU, no banners hang from 1966. The season didn’t count in the record books. It meant far more than that.

“It meant everything,” Hickman says. “I think the brand of basketball we played our freshman year, the success we had with the wins, the publicity we had not only around the state, but nationally – again, because of Pete – definitely set the tone for what I consider the resurgence of basketball at LSU. There’s been ups and downs since then, obviously, but I think it brought back the fervor of the Bob Pettit era that had been missing for quite a while. What we were able to accomplish that freshman year set the benchmark for basketball being recognized as coming back to good ol’ LSU.

“Everybody talks about our varsity years, but the freshman year is the impetus.”


Tropes:

  • 0% Approval Rating: The United States government gradually becomes this during the Civil War, due to a combination of badly failed economic policies and ideological insanity. Mobs and militias fight the police openly in the streets, domestic terrorism is rampant, judges are lynched, state governments begin to secede, and toward the end even the military is experiencing massive defections and passive-aggressive sabotage.
  • 20 Minutes into the Future: The story begins in 2016, two years ahead of its date of publication, and depicts an increasingly oppressive American regime that follows a steep trajectory of post-Obamanian descent into extreme liberalism, identity politics and Political Correctness Gone Mad. The science fiction elements in society and technology are subtly present almost from the start, then increase as the world advances, and become particularly prominent in the last third or so of the book.
  • Accidental Public Confession: Type 1 example with Governor Fullarbottom. The Christian Marines' psy-war eventually gets on his nerves so much that he makes a complete confession of his dirty laundry at a public press conference.
  • The Ace: Colonel William Hocking Kraft, the leader of the Retroculture revolution and savvy politician, fearless soldier, inspired strategist and visionary philosopher. Even Rumford, himself acclaimed as the greatest soldier of his time, agrees that Kraft has a better grasp of military affairs than he does.
  • Action Genre Hero Guy: John Rumford fits every item on the checklist, except that he isn't fighting to save a loved one, but his country. A somewhat unusual variation in one respect, however, in that he is also a (working-class, one-liner-touting, ex-military) well-read intellectual, which makes for some funny lines.
  • Adipose Rex: Bill Kraft is the third, and most iconic and long-serving leader of the Northern Confederation, and is frequently mentioned to be quite fat.
  • Affably Evil: The Landwehr emissary is one of the few "enemy" characters to be portrayed as a genuinely-pleasant person, in spite of being a very-literal Nazi.
  • After the End: Much of the novel takes place against the backdrop of the Fallen States of America.
  • All Gays Are Pedophiles: Ultimately subverted, though even then the book is certainly not friendly to LGBT people otherwise. One of the major early incidents in the story is a law requiring all elementary schools to have at least one gay counselor with "unrestricted private and public access" to kids to help them figure out their sexuality, and this is interpreted as being an obvious cover up for the "real" reason gay people would want to be alone with children. Incidents like these lead the State of Maine to rebel against their governor. However, when it is revealed that NAMBLA is behind the plot, it is specifically pointed out that "[e]ven most of the other gays don't like those perverts."
  • The Alleged Boss: President Warner of the late-stage United States is generally presented as a rather well-meaning but weak ruler, usually under the thumb of the extremists and corrupt insiders in his administration. However, he does show decisive and effective leadership on a few occasions, notably when forcing his hawkish military advisors to stand down in the escalating conflict with Russia.
  • Ambadassador: Nazi officer Captain Halsing is not only polite and cultured, but also tough as nails. Additionally, there is Father Dimitri, the Victorians' unofficial (and eventually official) liaison with the Czar's government, who is a former soldier in the Russian Naval Infantry.
  • Angry White Man: John Rumford, as well as most of his friends in the Christian Marines (with some exceptions, such as Gunny Matthews). Initially simply an Innocent Bigot who is upset with various sorts of Political Correctness Gone Mad in his decaying near-future United States, Rumford gradually becomes politically active as a vigilante and neo-reactionary militia leader. The Christian Marines organization he comes to lead fights for conservative Christian values and against what they term "the unholy trinity of 'racism, sexism, and homophobia'" despite ironically being racist, sexist and homophobic themselves.
  • Animal Wrongs Group: The Paleopitus, who combine this with fanatical eco-primitivism and a nightmarish neo-pagan religious cult.
  • Antagonistic Governor: Governor Hokem, who functions as a sort of Starter Villain for the Christian Marines to take on before the real uprising begins. He is not really very evil personally, so much as simply corrupt and a pawn of the special interests.
  • Anti-Air: Early after its secession, New England is light on air defenses, with the federal government dominating the air. It becomes a plot point when a lucky soldier with a MANPAD manages to shoot down an overconfident Navy F-35 that went in too low and slow.
  • Anti-Hero: Kraft and Rumford, the ideologist and leader of the Retroculture revolution and his chief lieutenant. Though they are the heroes of the story, and nicer than most of the massively monstrous villains, both are willing to use extreme measures to create and defend the Confederation.
  • Anti-Intellectualism: Zig-zagged. While Retroculture encourages literacy and scholarship, is very scientifically innovative and supports the teaching of the classical philosophy and culture of Western Civilization, the Retroculturists will only tolerate a certain subset of philosophy, and ban anything that disagrees with their preordained opinions as "Cultural Marxism," slaughtering dissenting academics. It also literally preaches that every single good idea humanity will ever have has already been had, so further study or research with the aim of "advancement" is pointless. Despite all logic and historical evidence suggesting this should result in a stagnant society regurgitating the same ideas,according to Rumford there is a great cultural and scientific renaissance beginning by the end of the story .
    • For certain values of "downplayed", unsurprisingly, as large numbers of intellectuals who don't toe the Retroculture party line are executed without trial (i.e. murdered).
    • Live-fire infantry training with offset aim alone preventing casualties, modern warships destroyed with spar torpedoes, Russian T-34s as the ultimate tank design for rear area strikes which are apparently the sole purpose of tanks, antiquated 1950s radar easily spotting stealth bombers, etc. etc. Platoon strength militia units with no logistics or coordination with each other are upheld as vastly superior to existing military, to the point of being called upon to train the actual military. At one point, the protagonist shows his contempt for the established military by sleeping through a briefing containing such useless trivia as local politics, road and weather conditions.
    • Also the hero, John Rumford's, Establishing Character Moment as a young US Marine is interrupting a ceremony honoring the Corps' war dead rather than let a female Marine participate. No woman fought at Iwo Jima, he insists, so no woman has a right to speak the words and honor the dead. In reality, women have been a part of the USMC since 1918, served in combat areas since Vietnam, and as of the story's beginning have been full and equal parts of all save small unit ground combat for over twenty years. There are no male, female, white, black etc. Marines, only Marines. Besides, disrupting a remembrance ceremony is far more disrespectful than any imagined slight. Exactly none of these points come up when his CO chews him out and he gets discharged, only that a congresswoman is hounding him to be inclusive. If anything, his fellow Marines seem to respect his stand on the issue (despite the fact that doing this is approving of disrespect against far more fellow Marines both living and dead).
    • Crossing over with Artistic License – History, Rumford also asserts that no army that has included female front-line combatants has ever been successful. Hilariously considering the above-mentioned idolization of the T-34, the same war that produced said very fine tank also saw the Soviets field female snipers, machine-gunners, tank crew, and combat pilots, the latter including a very famous all-female bomber regiment. In all, ninety women received the Gold Star Medal and the title Hero of the Soviet Union during World War II, most for service in front-line combat. That's not even to mention the Israelis.
      The "Cultural Marxist" professors Kraft purges, who forced homosexuality and neo-paganism on their students. According to Rumford, everyone thinks it was a good deed to get rid of them.
    • Kraft deciding to purge Victoria of "Cultural Marxist" professors is one thing. It takes a special kind of crazy/evil to dress up the executioners as Knights Templar and slaughter them with swords and spears while Dies Irae plays in the background, all on live television.
    • From a slightly different perspective, Rumford is in exactly one firefight, to which he contributes nothing, and all of his victories are best explained by the enemy's juggling idiot balls. And his interpretations of many of the authors he has read is at times somewhat idiosyncratic.
    • Or commit lese majesté against his beloved sovereign.
    • Early in the story (before the all-out collapse), the Christian Marines are making a perfectly good start in their low-key "war" against corrupt governor Snidely Hokem's regime, but are still well short of actually bringing him down. Instead, this is done by some effeminate gay characters, who dress up as women, get friendly with him, and get it on tape, which results in his ignominious resignation. So the right-wing heroes' first major victory is actually thanks to a couple of devious crossdressers doing their stuff. Alas, they don't get much credit for it later on.
    • Later, when chaos reigns, von Braun's Nazi militia restore order and ruthlessly clean out the cannibals and Cultural Marxists from the territories they control, leaving these areas peaceful and prosperous once their regime is eventually succeeded by a more moderate one. They do get some credit for their good deeds (such as they are) in the transitional phase.
      For instance, after describing how race relations in Victoria work, including Blacks being forbidden from raising families in the cities, Rumford says you can drive through a peaceful rural community, and see the little Black children playing at recess from their one-room schoolhouses, you just might hear a popular song about how any criminal caught stealing will go straight to the hangman. Pointedly, similar suggestions that lawlessness needs to be tamped down with the constant threat of legal violence aren't made towards the white, Christian parts of Retroculture.
    • The alienating nature of present modernity, and how various ideologies and groups of people attempt to respond to it.
    • The nature of power, how it is earned and exercised, and how much of it is really illusory.
    • Human nature, its character and its malleability (or lack thereof), as well as the theory and practice of how "equal" men truly are in various ways.
    • The nature of war and the struggle for existence, what men will do to survive and the price they pay for it.
    • And finally, the power of Truth, which is the core theme that underlies them all. Truth and honesty set men free: an order built on untruth makes men miserable and will fail, one built on truth makes men glad and will endure.
    • Multiculturalism = bad. Many characters who aren't white, heterosexual, and male are portrayed as ridiculously over-the-top evil to progress the author's viewpoint.
    • In the first, Rumford and his allies fight against the US federal government, which is immensely powerful in theory, but terminally crippled by corruption, mismanagement, Insane Troll Logic economic policies and every conceivable sort of Political Correctness Gone Mad. As far as the raw resources available go, they can easily crush the Confederation on paper, but given how dysfunctional and increasingly fractured the country is becoming, they can only ever mobilize a fraction of their available forces against them, and often not make effective use even of those due to lack of will, political meddling or passive-aggressive sabotage from within.
    • Then, in the post-American chaos, the Confederation faces various enemies, but the most serious threats are Leader von Braun's neo-Nazi Midwestern state, and then the West Coast's Democratic Republic of Azania, which becomes the ultimate "villain" faction. The former is basically the Confederation's own dark mirror image, which takes its Right-Wing Militia Fanatic style much too far and straight into unambiguously evil (though efficient) extremes the latter, meanwhile, is its ultimate ideological antithesis, a transhumanist Lady Land. Whereas the Feds were (with some exceptions) usually either incompetent or corrupt, these enemies are rather leaner and meaner, more of the No-Nonsense Nemesis and Elite Army variety, though each in turn in its own way: the Nazis have a truly excellent old-school military establishment, with well-organized logistics, good officers and doctrine and first-rate troops, while Azania has the most advanced high-tech military in the setting, employing drones, guided missiles, AI assistance for the staff and various other gadgets.
    • The Corrupter: As Kraft sees it, the Cultural Marxist academics, who attempt to break down Western Civilization by promoting egalitarianism, feminism, sexual nihilism and other ideologies that may feel good for the individual but invariably harm the greater, common good of society.
    • The Coup: Soon after independence, one is attempted by Governor Bowen himself, trying to overthrow the lawful government together with Deep Green militants.
    • Crapsack World: Halfway through the book, America is in post-apocalyptic chaos and most of the world is seeing similar degrees of disruption from wars, pandemics, terrorism and the collapse of global trade. With a few commendable exceptions, such functioning states as still exist are all various flavors of dictatorships, ranging from absolute monarchies to fascist dystopias. The ending is also absolutely this if you aren't a heterosexual white male (or even if you are one but don't agree with the book's ideology).
    • Crazy Enough to Work: It doesn't matter what the Christian Marines try, whether a deep raid to kidnap hundreds of military men as hostages, sinking modern warships with spar torpedoes before shelling a runway into uselessness, kidnapping a sitting governor. they will always succeed, because their enemies will never imagine anyone crazy enough to try their stunts.
    • Crazy-Prepared: Kraft always has a plan. When the Deep Greeners revolt, he not only knows about it before the government, he also has a non-violent (or non-lethal, at least) solution ready for the crisis.
    • Cruel and Unusual Death: When the Muslims occupy Boston, all Christians who refuse to renounce their faith are crucified.
    • Culture Clash: Present from the introduction and periodically reaffirmed. Though in this novel there is only the true and good (Christian, European) culture, and all the forces scheming to destroy it, the "Cultural Marxists" consisting of an odd bunch of liberals, feminists, LGBTQ, academics, journalists, environmentalists, actual communists and federalists.
    • Cultured Badass: Rumford, who has studied history, philosophy and literature, appreciates classical music and writes haiku, and is also a former Marine, eventually literal crusader knight, and recognized as the greatest general of his times.
    • Cunning Linguist: In addition to his native English, Rumford knows German, and apparently at least a little Spanish, Latin, and Russian. Justified at least in part by his military education and experience, as well as his private interest in the classics. William Kraft likewise knows German and French, and tends to pepper his dialogue with European quotes and idioms.
    • Curbstomp Battle: Pretty much anytime the Northern Confederation/Victoria fights anyone. Special notice must be given to the Numero Uno division, which was surrounded and surrendered with barely a shot fired, the air battles with Azania wherein female pilots often panicked and fled or crashed when faced with any opposition, and the Battle of Seabasticook, where federal troops are ambushed and captured by plaid-dressed militiamen clinging to the underside of a bridge.
    • Cure Your Gays: The Azanians who surrender are cured of their lesbianism and feminism by Mrs. Bingham's women's auxiliary, so as to be fit for life in the Confederation. It is offhandedly mentioned that the ones that do not change get sold to the Muslims as slaves. Rumford elaborates his position as not really caring if people are gay, as long as they're not public about it and don't expect acceptance of their vile lifestyle.
    • Dawn of an Era: Several, usually heralded by Kraft's mighty speeches. The ultimate one is probably that which inaugurates the mature Retroculture system in the final chapters.
      • The prologue makes it clear that Rumford, at least, marks the dawn of the Reclamation by the burning of the woman bishop for heresy (she was a woman, who claimed to be a bishop). Though the ending did elaborate that she denied the divinity of Jesus Christ and rejected the authority of her fellow bishops to judge her.
      • In the last chapter, every faction of Christianity lays aside their differences, the most visible religious leaders in a mutual laying of hands ceremony, to declare a global war to drive Islam out of the Mediterranean.
      • The reader would appear meant to agree more with the latter.
      • Though through "Cultural Marxism" the definition of "communism" seems to have stretched to encompass all manner of people Rumford doesn't like, primarily leftist intellectuals, feminists and all forms of multiculturalism.
      • Every villain faction justifies its atrocities as retribution for one sort of historic injustice or another. The US Government starts by sending in militarized federal police to subdue Mainers who do not want newly paroled federal convicts as neighbors, and becomes increasingly totalitarian as it decays, beginning to randomly confiscate the movable property of targeted citizens who cannot show a paper trail for every item. As the Civil War escalates, they stoop to assassinating Confederation leaders and de facto excusing murder and rape by their colored troops as justified revenge on whites for structural racism and oppression. Similarly, in the New Confederacy, "Big Daddy" Tsombe ravages all of New Orleans to strike back against historical white supremacy, and the leaders of the Commune in Atlanta launch a genocide of whites and Asians for the same reason after they take over. Among the later successor states, Cascadia punishes even minor environmental misdemeanors with bizarre tortures, while Azania jails any man who so much as jokes about their system in public, and tries to exterminate all of North America with nuclear weapons when they lose the war against the Confederation.
      • The good guys themselves also indulge in it. Beginning with a federal judge tarred and feathered for ruling against the heroes, the governor kidnapped and forced to wait out his term as a prisoner on a boat for ignoring a grassroots recall petition, and culminating in soldiers who fight Victoria taken as hostages, war criminals hanged without trial, or Azanian diehards sold into Sexual Slavery, nuclear retribution to a major insurgency and genocide in Atlanta, apocalyptic plagues in revenge for the Caliphate's bioplague attacks, and wars to the extinction of whole cultures and peoples (again, Azania).
      • The New Confederacy contributes the Jefferson Davies Brigade to the Northern Confederation's war with Azania: a unit of volunteers on leave from its regular army, paid for by conservative Confederate women who oppose Azania's Feminist regime. Meanwhile, the Mexicans send troops to assist Azania&mdashThough not because they like the feminism, they just hate the Confederation.
      • And prior to this, the Imperial Japanese Navy leased out a (very) nominally private carrier task force to the Confederation as part of a proxy war with China.
      • Despite being, theoretically, non-expanionist and anti-interventionist after filling up their "natural borders," Victoria still sends Rumford abroad as a military consultant to fix the racial issues in the South, and bring down Cascadia.
      • Also, at the end the Tsar abdicates his position to lead a new knightly order in a global crusade to drive Islam out of the Mediterranean. Christians from around the world flock to his banner, any sectarian issues dealt with after various church leaders forgive each other.
      • Also after Azania's defeat. The all-female population of this Amazonian state is previously shown to hate and fear all men, to the point that they launch anti-male genocides and would rather commit suicide by nuke than surrender to the Confederation. It's not quite consistently portrayed, but generally speaking, until now nearly all of them have very much appeared to consider submission a Fate Worse than Death. However, before long most have been rehabilitated, and want to be proper and feminine women. Subverted a little, in that there are some die-hards, but they are still said to be quite few&mdashFar fewer than one might expect, given Azania's prior fanaticism.
      • For the Christian Marines in general, the book opens with them executing a female Episcopalian bishop for heresy.
      • In some ways, the Confederation themselves can be viewed as an American, Conservative Christian version of the Khmer Rouge, though as depicted in the book it has no domestic genocides note on the other hand they have a streak of Anti-Intellectualism, especially regarding social sciences, to the point of violently purging academics deemed politically undesirable and is a decentralized republic with plebiscitary direct democracy rather than a totalitarian dictatorship. They discourage much post-1930s technology (though they also encourage Super Science), initiate a voluntary pledge (with strong social pressure to conform) not to use most forms of modern telecommunications such as cell phones or computers (save for a handful mainly used to hack enemy nations) and limit most of their economic output to agrarian farming practices. Said practices require millions of (African-American) city dwellers to leave for the countryside, though this is also done voluntarily. They also consider poverty a way to cleanse one of one's sins.
      • As shown in the meeting with a Nazi representative, Rumford's foremost objection to Nazism is their love of modernism and the soulless industrial efficiency with which they do what he was already doing with Germanic Efficiency. As opposed to, you know, the Nazi stuff.
      • General Hadji al-Malik al-Shabazz of the radical Islamic militia that takes over Boston following the downfall of the United States. Before he joined their group, he was Willy Welly the moderately successful saxophonist.
      • Though he is presented as heroic, Rumford himself can appear this way to those who oppose the Retroculture Revolution: a discharged company-grade officer who tried and failed becoming a small farmer, then launched a political crusade that balloned and ended up as second-in-command of the most powerful of the American successor states.
      • Also the Federal Government, which deals with armed revolt by passing harsh anti-smoking laws and condemning the rebels for their racial insensitivity.
      • The Cascadian ruling council of neo-pagan environmentalists end up eaten by the animals they had protected at the expense of their human citizens. It isn't any of Rumford's doing, but he's not exactly sorry for them, either.
      • Kraft thinks killing the Marxist subversives is this, because Marxism is death, and so those who spread it get death in return.
      • Played with straight with Gunny Matthews, who feels he isn't a true Christian or "fit for decent people" after saying the Shahada.
      • We never actually see Rumford in a firefight. The closest he comes to actually putting himself in danger is being within an earshot of a drive-by shooting. In fact, for "the greatest soldier of the age" Rumford doesn't do a lot of planning, leading or fighting. He openly shows his contempt by napping through a briefing on weather and road conditions, bombs an allied resistance group's leadership, nukes an allied city, etc. Yet he always has perfect intelligence through his Christian Marine or Kraft's contacts and pulls off some insane stunts like sinking modern ships with spar torpedoes, or taking hundreds of pilots hostage, with little justification beyond the fact that he is the one performing them, and negative fallout for these things is minimal to nonexistent.
      • The Secretary of Defense has a moment where she explains that Black people are warriors, because they understand courage comes from the nose and eat their boogers and snot. Whereas white people "wrap yours up in a little surrender flag and throw it away." Therefore, untrained gangbangers are better fighter than a coordinated and trained military fighting force, and they alone should invade Victoria.
      • Kraft's speech at Dartmouth, in which asserts that all leftists, feminists, etc. are secretly Marxist, specifically Cultural Marxists, and they are all engaged in a great coordinated conspiracy to destroy Christianity and Western culture. He provides no evidence for these claims, displays only the most basic understanding of what Marxism actually is (and in later chapters links Cultural Marxism to the French Revolution, prior to Marx being born) and, in the story, is treated as totally correct. One member of the audience is visibly distressed that he's about the air the great secret of academia.
      • The word "Ms." never appears without quotation marks in the book, and always refers to a female villain. Good women are "Miss" or "Mrs." depending on their marital status.
      • The term "Cultural Marxism" may be clunky, but it has a very specific meaning. It's also a repurposed version of the Nazi term "Cultural Bolshevism."
      • The leaders of the Council of Responsible Negroes pretty much agree with Rumford across the board about the problems of the black community (criminality, welfare abuse, drug addiction, anti-social rap and hip-hop messages, and so on), as well as the best solutions to them (draconian laws and relocation of most blacks into the countryside to earn an honest living as agricultural laborers).
      • Maria, despite having been raised a wealthy and privileged noblewoman, cheerfully accepts it as part of her role to handle all domestic chores, because that is what a woman should do.
      • Victoria describes Antonov-2 prop planes as practically invisible to radar, and totally invisible to advanced air search radar, because such a small slow-flying object makes no sense to the Azanian computer systems.
      • In the novel, radar-guided missiles can be easily neutralized by flying in a diamond formation, causing the missile to home in on the empty centroid of the group. In real life this would result in the entire formation being destroyed by the missile's proximity fuse.
      • An F-16 is able to catch, surprise and gun-kill an F-22 without anyone else in the formation noticing.
      • An F-35 flies low enough to be shot down by a shoulder-launched infrared missile, despite having just conducted a high-altitude precision bombing.
      • F-16s humiliate a larger fleet of F-35As in every single engagement, suffering only a single loss - from an F-35 accidentally ramming an F-16.
      • As part of a compromise against killing or removing the Black population, it is agreed that any Black committing a violent crime would be tried within three days, face a jury of the friends and neighbors of the victim, the trial would last one day, and they would be hanged within a week. Likewise, failing a random drug test is grounds for immediate execution.
      • In a rather literal example, Christian Marines don crusader garb to butcher the liberal academics at Dartmouth with short-swords, while monks chant in Latin in the background. This spectacle is broadcast to the entire Confederacy.
      • In the last chapter, the Tsar abdicates to become the founding Grandmaster of the Order of St. Louis, an international crusading organization dedicated to eradicating Islam from the Mediterranean world and retaking Jerusalem, by any means necessary. Rumford runs their version of officer training.
      • The remainder are sold into sexual slavery in the Middle East, to experience 'real' patriarchal oppression.
      • Rumford, despite his notorious lack of the social graces, has seemingly immense natural persuasiveness and charisma, drawing people to himself and convincing them of his views almost without trying. For a few examples: the Christian Marines immediately elect him as their leader he convinces the Black Muslims who capture him to surrender to the Confederation and once Governor Adams proclaims independence, he and his military advisors (including actual generals who have joined the rebellion) listen with great interest to the former captain and current militia leader's suggestions, ending up making him chief of the new general staff.
      • Perhaps even more true of William Kraft, who is a more accomplished public speaker, and the only man in the story Rumford himself is ever really willing to follow, rather than command.
      • John Rumford. "John" is of course a Biblical name, which originally means "graced by the Lord," and Rumford's role in the story somewhat parallels those of certain Biblical figures (for example, that of the apostle John as chief disciple of Big Good William Kraft). "Rumford," meanwhile, is almost certainly a reference to Benjamin Thompson, an 18th-century scientist, officer and statesman. Like the story's Rumford, Thompson was a Renaissance Man, fought against the US Government (as a British Loyalist, in his case), and had associations with Germany&mdashin 1791, he became the Count von Rumford of the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation.
      • William Kraft. "William" is a Germanic name that can be read as "The Will to Protect," which mirrors Kraft's firm and repeated emphasis on the will to defend itself that Western Civilization must (at least in his opinion) regain if it is to survive in the new millennium. "Kraft" is German and means power or force, as in "force of nature" (Naturkraft), again mirroring Kraft's forceful personality and drive. This latter meaning is remarked on by Rumford when the time has come to eulogize the late Kraft .
      • Maria Mercedes de Dio de Alva is literally meaningful: Alva means "white," and the characters comment on her noble fair complexion, echoing back to the "clean blooded" .
      • Christian Marines commander John Kelly's last name means (among other things) warrior or fighter.
      • Mary Malone of Azania, whose Irish last name means "Servant of John"&mdashfittingly so, since she joins the Confederation after her High-Heel–Face Turn . Her name may also be a reference to the character Mary Malone in Philip Pullman's atheist fantasy series.
      • Several of the villains (e.g., Governor Hokem, Ambassador Zimmerman) have names that straddle the line between this and plain old Unfortunate Name. They are covered in more detail under that entry.
      • In a meta-example, William Lind first published the book under the penname Thomas Hobbes.
      • As America declines and the regime comes to depend more on minorities to support its corrupt rule, President Warner eventually agrees with Mexican nationalist leaders to establish a condominium over Texas, Arizona and Newmex. This backfires, however, as the locals strike back, and end up destroying most of the Mexican army in the ensuing war. The resultant power vacuum then allows the Aztecs to seize power in Mexico itself.
      • The civil war in California sees that state split. The Hispanic-dominated southern part is apparently annexed by the Mexicans, whereas the north becomes Azania.
      • This disregard might come from the author's own views, given that he gave a speech at a Holocaust denial conference explicitly blaming Cultural Marxism on the Jews.
      • New Orleans, too, is torn apart and all its historic sites ruined by the Black population, apparently just to spite their white neighbors who "like things pretty."
      • A federal drone strike destroys the ruins of the Alamo when Texas secedes, out of petty spite.
      • Particularly strange is the moral outrage when Governor Adams is assassinated, as though Victoria would never stoop to such a thing. Kidnapping, torture, use of hostages, sure, but assassination? Shortly after this, the entire federal government is killed by a kamikaze pilot who, we are assured, had absolutely nothing to do with Victoria.
      • The prologue has the Victorians execute a female Episcopalian bishop who worships pagan deities instead of Jesus Christ for refusing to admit that she's not a true Christian, and this is presented as fully justified. But when the Islamic militants demand that Mrs. Lodge convert to Islam or die, it's an act of pure evil. Presumably, whether religious intolerance is evil or not depends on whether it's the true Christians doing it.
      • Also, Gunny Matthews has a rather. extreme reaction to having once said the shahada during the Muslim Invasion arc to infiltrate the occupying force. He seems more distressed over it than the intelligence he gained, that Christian blacks are being taken to the Middle East as slaves, insisting that he's no longer a Christian or "fit for decent people." At least until Rumford gives him absolution. Apart from Rumford's regrets over Atlanta, Gunny is the only Christian Marine ever shown to express remorse for anything he's done.
      • The Landwehr stop just short of actually calling themselves Nazis, but since they employ incredibly obvious fascist iconography, Nietzschean philosophy and actual Waffen-SS military ranks, they fool no one.
      • Somewhat less blatant is Azania, the eugenicist and militarist Lady Land.
      • The Retroculturists reigning in Victoria, while not so much Nazis, can pass for Boer Nationalists by another name pretty well, &mdash what with their re-instated 'voluntary' segregation, male patriarchy, preference for sexual straightness, technophobia, rather deep religiousness and fondness for traditional values, a little excessive eagerness to use capital punishment, disdain for provision of welfare support to the poor teetering on the edge of open social Darwinism, and nothing but utter scorn for any ideology resembling darned leftism. One of their leaders is more than a little infatuated with German culture, and the aforementioned Landwehr is, ahem, rather close to them on many points (as spoken out during the meeting of Rumford with Halsing, something the formerquickly denies).

      Rumford: At one time, America had shunned power, refused power, at home and abroad. Those had been our happy days. Then the "Progressives" came along, who thought the power of government could be used for good. Eventually, they decided the power of government was good in itself&mdashbecause they controlled it.

      That’s how it always works: power looks good to whoever has it. But it isn’t. Our war was in a way the strangest war of all, a war to bury power, not to seize it.

      • While their air forces underperform against the Confederation's veteran pilots, the Azanians are more dangerous on the ground, even earning the distinction of outthinking Rumford on one occasion. He still wins that battle in the end, but only because of luck and unexpected reinforcements.
      • Later, they manage to be an existential threat to the Confederation even when on the verge of total defeat by virtue of their nuclear doomsday weapons.
      • Kraft is one, at least on a good day. Rumford wishes he were one, but knows he isn't.
      • Also Hauptsturmfuehrer Halsing, the Landwehr officer, who may be a crazy Nazi wannabe, but is also cool, competent and scrupulously polite.
      • This is fairly typical of the New Confederacy, where the officers of the conservative "Old South" faction keep alive the traditions of Southern chivalry.
      • Kraft's ruminations over the conspiracies of the Cultural Marxists may sound conspiratorial, but he is proved absolutely correct by unfolding events. Even after the downfall of the United States itself, the Marxists in the UN keep trying to subvert and destroy the Confederation.
      • For that matter, the Azanians are proved right as well in a way. Their tyranny and militarism might easily be considered paranoid, but Kraft and his followers quite validate their fears by launching an explicitly ideological campaign of subversion and war against them.
      • The burning of the bishop Cloaca Devlin for heresy which bookends the novel.
      • Besides which, Russia's financial and military support is invaluable to Victoria, Japan buys and develops all their national parks and China builds a hydroelectric dam in exchange for a hundred year monopoly on power. But at least they're free from the stifling rule of Washington, right?
      • Also, the bomber used to destroy Atlanta is the last surviving example of a Nazi jet-bomber design from the very end of the war. Could be just Rule of Cool though.

      "You are condemned, let me hasten to add, not by me alone, nor merely by those who live today in our Confederation. Your jury is every man and woman who for three thousand years has labored and fought and died for Western culture, the culture you sought to sacrifice to your own pathetic egos.


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