Bull DE-52 - History

Bull DE-52 - History

Bull

Born in New York City, 14 July 1914, Richard Bull enlisted in the Naval Reserve in 1938 and was designated a Naval Aviator in 1939. Lieutenant (junior grade) Bull was lost 5 February 1942 during action in the Netherlands East Indies. He was posthumously awarded the Distinguished Flying Cross.

I

Bull (DE-52) was built by Bethleheiii-Hingham Shipyard, Inc., Hingham, Mass.; commissioned 19 May 1943; and transferred under Lend- Lease to the United Kingdom as HMS Bentinck the same day. She was returned to United States' custody 5 January 1946 and sold 26 May 1946.

11

(DE-693: dp. 1400; 1. 306'; b. 36'10" ; dr. 13'6 s. 24 k.
cpl. 186; a. 3 3", 3 21" TT.; cl. Buckley)

Bull (DE-693) was launched 25 March 1943 by Defoe Shipbuilding Co., Bay City, Mich.; sponsored by Mrs. Ruth P. Bull, widow of Lieutenant (junior grade) Bull; and commissioned 12 August 1943, Lieutenant D. W. Farnham, USNR, in command.

Between 29 October 1943 and 27 July 1944 Bull made six round trip voyages as a convoy escort between New
York, Boston, and Londonderry, Ireland. Late in July 1944 she entered Todd Shipyards Corp., Brooklyn, and underwent conversion to a high speed transport (reclassified APD-78, 31 July 1944). ~Conversion was completed 26 October 1944 and Bull, after a short period of refresher training, departed for the Pacific. Arriving at Pearl Harbor 2 December, she embarked an underwater demolition team and proceeded to the Palaus which served as the staging area for the invasion of Luzon.

During 1945 Bull carried underwater demolition teams and furnished fire support and screening during the Lingayen Gulf landings (2-19 January 1945) ; invasion of Iwo Jima (14 February-5 March) ; and seizure of Okinawa (21 March-22 April, 2-8 May, and 29 MayI July).

On 1 July Bull departed Okinawa and sailed to San Pedro, Calif., where she arrived on the 26th. After repairs, she returned to the Western Pacific, arriving at Manila, Philippine Islands, 19 October 1945. Bull reinained on occupation duty in the Far East until 9 March 1946 when she departed for the west coast. Upon arrival, she conducted local operations for a short period and then reported to the San Diego Group, Pacific Reserve Fleet, for inactivation. Bull went out of commission in reserve 5 June 1947.

Bull received three battle stars for her World War 11 service.


USS Cofer (DE-208)

USS Cofer (DE-208/APD-62), a Buckley-class destroyer escort of the United States Navy, was named in honor of John Joseph Cofer (1919–1942), who was killed in action on 13 November 1942 during the Naval Battle of Guadalcanal, while serving aboard the destroyer USS Aaron Ward.

  • 1,400 long tons (1,422 t) light
  • 1,740 long tons (1,768 t) standard
  • 9 ft 6 in (2.90 m) standard
  • 11 ft 3 in (3.43 m) full load
  • 2 × boilers turbo-electric drive
  • 12,000 shp (8.9 MW)
  • 2 × solid manganese-bronze 3,600 lb (1,600 kg) 3-bladed propellers, 8 ft 6 in (2.59 m) diameter, 7 ft 7 in (2.31 m) pitch
  • 2 × rudders
  • 359 tons fuel oil
  • 3,700 nmi (6,900 km) at 15 kn (28 km/h 17 mph)
  • 6,000 nmi (11,000 km) at 12 kn (22 km/h 14 mph)
  • 3 × 3"/50 caliber guns
  • 1 × quad 1.1"/75 caliber gun
  • 8 × single 20 mm guns
  • 1 × triple 21 inch (533 mm)torpedo tubes
  • 1 × Hedgehoganti-submarine mortar
  • 8 × K-gun depth charge projectors
  • 2 × depth charge tracks

Cofer was launched on 6 September 1943 by Charleston Navy Yard, sponsored by Mrs. M. J. Cofer, mother of Seaman First Class Cofer and commissioned on 19 January 1944, Lieutenant Commander Alvin P. Chester in command.


Mục lục

Những chiếc thuộc lớp tàu khu trục hộ tống Buckley có chiều dài chung 306 ft (93 m), mạn tàu rộng 37 ft 1 in (11,30 m) và độ sâu mớn nước khi đầy tải là 11 ft 3 in (3,43 m). Chúng có trọng lượng choán nước tiêu chuẩn 1.400 tấn Anh (1.400 t) và lên đến 1.740 tấn Anh (1.770 t) khi đầy tải. [2] Hệ thống động lực bao gồm hai turbine hơi nước General Electric công suất 13.500 mã lực (10.100 kW), dẫn động hai máy phát điện công suất 9.200 kilôwatt (12.300 hp) để vận hành hai trục chân vịt [3] [4] công suất 12.000 hp (8.900 kW) cho phép đạt được tốc độ tối đa 23 kn (26 mph 43 km/h), và có dự trữ hành trình 6.000 nmi (6.900 dặm 11.000 km) khi di chuyển ở vận tốc đường trường 12 kn (14 mph 22 km/h). [5]

Vũ khí trang bị bao gồm ba pháo 3 in (76 mm)/50 cal trên tháp pháo nòng đơn có thể đối hạm hoặc phòng không, một khẩu đội 1,1 inch/75 caliber bốn nòng và tám pháo phòng không Oerlikon 20 mm. Vũ khí chống ngầm bao gồm một dàn súng cối chống tàu ngầm Hedgehog Mk. 10 (có 24 nòng và mang theo 144 quả đạn) hai đường ray Mk. 9 và tám máy phóng K3 Mk. 6 để thả mìn sâu. [5] [6] Khác biệt đáng kể so với lớp Evarts dẫn trước là chúng có thêm ba ống phóng ngư lôi Mark 15 21 inch (533 mm). Thủy thủ đoàn đầy đủ bao gồm 186 sĩ quan và thủy thủ. [5]

Bull là chiếc đầu tiên trong số những tàu khu trục hộ tống được hãng Defoe Shipbuilding Company tại Bay City, Michigan chế tạo. Lườn tàu được đóng theo cách thông thường, trong khi cấu trúc thượng tầng và thiết bị được tiền chế theo cách lật ngược nhằm rút ngắn thời gian chế tạo, một phương pháp mà hãng Defoe đi tiên phong. Nó được đặt lườn vào ngày 15 tháng 12, 1942 được hạ thủy vào ngày 25 tháng 3, 1943 và được đỡ đầu bởi bà Ruth P. Bull, vợ góa Thiếu úy Bull. Con tàu nhập biên chế vào ngày 12 tháng 8, 1943 dưới quyền chỉ huy của Hạm trưởng, Đại úy Hải quân Duane Wesley Farnham. [1] [7] [8]

Mặt trận Đại Tây Dương Sửa đổi

Sau khi hoàn tất việc chạy thử máy huấn luyện tại khu vực Bermuda, Bull hộ tống cho chiếc tàu chở quân Lục quân USAT George Washington đi Norfolk, Virginia, rồi tiếp tục đi đến Boston, Massachusetts vào ngày 4 tháng 10, 1943 để sửa chữa sau chạy thử máy. Con tàu ghé qua New York trước khi đi đến Curaçao tại Tây Ấn thuộc Hà Lan, rồi từ đây hộ tống một đoàn tàu vận tải vượt Đại Tây Dương để đi sang Londonderry, Bắc Ireland. Sau khi quay trở về New York vào ngày 9 tháng 12, nó hoạt động tại vùng biển vịnh Cape Cod cho đến cuối năm 1943, đảm nhiệm kéo mục tiêu phục vụ cho việc thực hành radar và chiến thuật ném bom bổ nhào của phi công hải quân. [1]

Bull sau đó được điều động sang Đội hộ tống 19, lúc này còn bao gồm các tàu khu trục hộ tống Rich (DE-695), Bunch (DE-694), Bates (DE-68), Amesbury (DE-66) và Blessman (DE-69). Nó quay trở về New York vào ngày 3 tháng 1, 1944, tham gia vào Đội đặc nhiệm 21.9 và lên đường vào ngày 9 tháng 1 cho một chuyến hộ tống vận tải vượt Đại Tây Dương khác đi sang Londonderry. Đi đến nơi mười ngày sau đó, nó ở lại cảng trong khoảng một tuần trước khi khởi hành vào ngày 27 tháng 1 cho hành trình quay trở về Hoa Kỳ. Con tàu chịu đựng nhiều bất trắc trong chuyến đi ngang qua vùng biển Bắc Đại Tây Dương khắc nghiệt, gặp một đám hỏa hoạn trong phòng động cơ số 2, băng qua một cơn bão vào ngày 3 tháng 2, va đập xuồng săn cá voi gây hư hại cột ăn-ten cùng một tai nạn nổ đạn dược. Cuối cùng nó cũng về đến cảng New York vào ngày 9 tháng 2. [1]

Sau khi được bảo trì tại New York, Bull tiến hành huấn luyện ôn tập tại khu vực Casco Bay, Maine trước khi đi đến Boston chuẩn bị cho một chuyến hộ tống vận tải vượt Đại Tây Dương khác. Lên đường vào ngày 28 tháng 2, nó hộ tống các tàu buôn băng qua vùng biển đầy dẫy tàu ngầm U-boat Đức để hướng đến Belfast, Bắc Ireland, đến nơi vào ngày 8 tháng 3. Lên đường cho hành trình quay trở về Hoa Kỳ, nó về đến New York vào ngày 25 tháng 3, và đã hoàn tất thêm một chuyến hộ tống vận tải khứ hồi vượt Đại Tây Dương khác trong mùa Xuân năm đó, quay trở về Boston vào ngày 1 tháng 5. [1]

Bull được tặng thưởng ba Ngôi sao Chiến trận do thành tích phục vụ trong Thế Chiến II. [1] [7]


La Flor Dominicana Andalusian Bull

For one of his new lines released at the IPCPR Convention & Trade Show, Litto Gomez turned to a trip to southern Spain that that ended up netting him a antique cigar mold. While the mold was clearly well-worn, it was able to be duplicated, with the new copies used to produce the Andalusian Bull.

Named for southern Spain’s rich heritage of bullfighting and the running of the bulls, it builds on that by using a green and gold band that get its colors from the region’s flag, while also bearing a silhouetted image of a torero, or what you might know as a matador.

For the blend, Gomez and his team picked a dark Ecuadorian corojo wrapper, with it being the first time this specific—albeit undisclosed—priming has been used. Both the binder and filler come from Estancia La Flor de Palma, the farm shared by La Flor Dominicana and Tabacalera Palma.

The Andalusian Bull will be a limited but ongoing production cigar, not made in the same quantities as the company’s core lines but also without any fixed number being produced.

  • Cigar Reviewed: La Flor Dominicana Andalusian Bull
  • Country of Origin: Dominican Republic
  • Factory: Tabacalera La Flor S.A.
  • Wrapper: Ecuadorian Corojo
  • Binder: Dominican Republic
  • Filler: Dominican Republic
  • Length: 6 1/2 Inches
  • Ring Gauge: 52/64
  • Vitola: Figurado
  • MSRP: $15 (Boxes of 10, $150)
  • Release Date: July 2016
  • Number of Cigars Released: Regular Production
  • Number of Cigars Smoked For Review: 3

It’s hard not to find the Andalusian Bull striking, an imposing and exaggerated figurado with a 64 ring gauge foot and that comes bearing a dark green and gold band featuring a matador in grand pose. The cigar is firm and well rolled—though one of the three samples feels a bit too firm—and the wrapper has an oily sheen on it that glistens when it catches the right light and feels smooth to the fingers. The foot offers a cool grain note as the lead, with the thickness of the aroma varying the most from sample to sample as it can range from just kneaded dough to a bowl of Cheerios. Just a sprinkling of common pepper stands behind that to offer a gentle tingle to the nostrils. The cold draw is generally on the firm side though one cigar is near perfect, and delivers varying amounts of pretzel dough, cedar and hints of butter, with only a faint amount of pepper making it to the lips seemingly by way of physical contact with the tobacco.

Copious amounts of smoke are produced from the foot of the Andalusian Bull as soon as some air gets moving through the cigar, as the large foot offers plenty of combustible material. While the smoke can be creamy in its best form, chocolate is the first note I can pick up, manifested with the duality of a warm chocolate chip brownie and both quite subtle on the palate, something that might be a slight shock given LFD’s reputation for producing significantly strong cigars. At its best, the smoke is full, round and soft on the palate but by no means lacking. As that flavor works the palate, pepper begins to come along and add some weight and spark to the profile. The first clump of ash reaches about an inch in length before crashing into my metal ashtray with an audible thud. The profile remains fairly pepper-driven, and retrohales confirm that assessment, but the overall body has stepped back just a bit as the chocolate has departed and smoke production has been cut almost in half. Touches of mint ice cream start laying the bridge to the cigar’s second third as the burn has been quite good if a bit slow.

While the mint doesn’t hang around much after the burn line gets into the second third, the smoke keeps the cool texture present on the palate while retrohales provide an alternate spin by way of a warm, peppery smoke. The overall profile continues to mellow until it becomes more of a medium-bodied, occasionally medium-minus strength profile, gracing the palate with more modesty than strength. Smoke production picks up just past the Andalusian Bull’s midpoint as the flavor starts a journey to becoming much more vibrant, matching its previous mark established in the first inch of the first third. Pepper remains a key component, but there is now a bit of almost orange sweetness in the nose, while the tongue gets dry earth that has a certain terroir yet doesn’t convey many flavors relatable to food or other sources. Both senses also get treated to a much more lingering finish, which gives the pepper more time to do its thing. It’s also just past the midpoint where the time it will take to get through the cigar comes to a clearer realization, as it has been just over two hours and the Andalusian Bull seems content on staying on its own schedule. It’s here where the cigar requires the occasional relight as well, though for the most part it has been burning quite well even after slightly longer than normal breaks between puffs.

If the lack of pepper in the middle portion of the Andalusian Bull was becoming a concern, rest assured that it comes raring back for a return appearance at the start of the final third, hitting both the tongue and palate with good amounts of strength. The cigar gets a bit more robust in the final third as the earthy note turns rocky and the pepper is a bit less refined. It also sets a new fulcrum point that the blend must contend with to maintain its balance certain puffs do a good job of toeing the line of strength and flavor while others seem to overstep and tread into notes that are either too rough or even colored by unbalanced minerals and sourness. Given both the decreasing ring gauge of the cigar and the approaching hot core, it’s a multi-variable problem that leaves me without a definite culprit to point to, and one that creates a challenge for the blend to navigate, let alone me by trying to adjust my rate of puffing in order to get the smoke to stay cool. The burn and draw remain fantastic all the way to the cigar’s final puffs as the cigar mellows just a bit but does show a fleeting touch of heated harshness.

  • Given the history of the Coronado line, I’m glad to see La Flor Dominicana put the LFD mark front and center on the band, incorporating it into the matador’s cape or muleta.
  • I don’t know that much about bullfighting, but learned that the matador uses two different capes during an event the first, the capote de brega, is used in the earlier part of the fight, while the muleta is saved for the last round and features a stick with the cloth hanging from it that is used to hide his sword that will be used to kill the bull.
  • In some ways I’m surprised that bulls and bullfighting aren’t used more in cigars, though a quick search reveals that companies including Joya de Nicaragua, AJ Fernandez and Crux Cigars have all used the world bull either in the name of a line or a vitola.
  • La Flor Dominicana must be at the high end of the range of time it takes to get through its cigars. It’s not possible to tell just how thick the binder and fillers are, but it’s clear that they aren’t quick combusting leaves, something I’ve found to be the case with much of LFD’s portfolio.
  • As an additional note about this, I often find myself going down a size if I’m going to smoke an LFD if I am on any sort of time limitation.
  • With ProCigar on the horizon, Charlie Minato and I both remarked that we’d like to visit La Flor Dominicana’s farm and factory again. You can see pictures from our visit in 2015 here.
  • Given my disdain for ash falling in the wrong place, I was a bit more proactive making sure the large clumps ended up in the ashtray. I must give the Andalusian Bull credit for having fairly durable ash.
  • The performance from sample to sample was remarkably consistent, something that does not go unappreciated.
  • The cigars for this review were purchased by halfwheel.
  • Final smoking time was two hours and 45 minutes on average.
  • Site sponsors Atlantic Cigar and Corona Cigar Co. both carry the La Flor Dominicana Andalusian Bull.

There’s little question that the Andalusian Bull blend is a winner it is dynamic and offers an evolving journey of flavors and strength from start to finish, with the first two thirds showing hardly any issues in terms of balance, while the final third does a decent if not perfect job. My issues lies simply with the size, as you have to commit nearly three hours to enjoy it completely. Thankfully the tapered head reduces the awkwardness a good bit, and if you’ve got the time, the Andalusian Bull has the goods to reward your investment.


Bull DE-52 - History

Flickr A depiction of the brazen bull in the Torture Museum in Bruges, Belgium.

The webs of Arachne, the foam that birthed Aphrodite, the love between Psyche and Eros — the mountain soil of Ancient Greece was rich loam for legends. While the canon is replete with epic loves and warlike glory, the stories that stick with us best are those of gore. The horror of the minotaur, the sack of Troy, the tragic fate of Medusa are as vivid in Western consciousness as if they stood before us in the red-and-black palette of an amphora.

Even more gruesome than these, however, is the legend of the brazen bull.

Once upon a time in ancient Greece (around 560 B.C.), the seaside colony of Akragas (modern day Sicily) was controlled by a powerful but cruel tyrant named Phalaris. He ruled a wealthy and lovely metropolis with an iron fist.

It’s said that one day, his court sculptor Perilaus showed off his new creation to his master — a replica of a bull, in gleaming brass. This was no simple statue, however. It was affixed with pipes and whistles, hollow on the inside, and constructed over a roaring fire. This bull was actually a melodic torture device.

When the fire was stoked sufficiently, the poor soul would be thrown into the bull, where the heat of its metal body roasted him alive. The pipes and whistles converted the screams of the damned to the snorts and growls of a bull, a flair that Perilaus calculated would tickle Phalaris.

Whether or not it pleased him, the bull proved useful to him — the first victim of many was supposedly Perilaus.

But like so many stories, the truth of the brazen bull is hard to verify.

YouTube A depiction of how the brazen bull worked.

Famed poet and philosopher Cicero recalls the bull as fact, and as proof of a cruel ruler’s viciousness in his series of speeches In Verrum: “… which was that noble bull, which that most cruel of all tyrants, Phalaris, is said to have had, into which he was accustomed to put men for punishment, and to put fire under.”

Cicero later used the symbol of the bull to represent Phalaris’ cruelty and wondered if his people may have fared better under foreign dominion rather than be subject to his brutality.

“…[To] consider whether it was more advantageous to the Sicilians to be subject to their own princes, or to be under the dominion of the Roman people when they had the same thing as a monument of the cruelty of their domestic masters, and of our liberality.”

Of course, Cicero was a political operator and used his speech to paint Phalaris as a villain. Fellow historian Diodorus Siculus wrote that Perilaus remarked:

“If you ever wish to punish some man, O Phalaris, shut him up within the bull and lay a fire beneath it by his groanings the bull will be thought to bellow and his cries of pain will give you pleasure as they come through the pipes in the nostrils.”

Diodorus’ Phalaris asked Perilaus to demonstrate his meaning, and when he climbed in the bull, Phalaris had the artist shut in and burned to death for his loathsome invention.

Whether evil tyrant or vigilante leader, one thing is clear: Phalaris and his brazen bull make a story for the ages.


What does a tyrant do with a beautiful bronze statue?

This statue hides something dark and horrible, although it may not seem so at first glance. This statue beautifully carved in bronze doesn’t look like a killing machine, not a Machiavellian torture device, however, it is. I’m sorry to tell you that no matter how beautiful you find this statue of a bronze bull, what you are seeing is a horrible torture machine horrible, as lethal as the man who commissioned it to be made.

The Brazen Bull was invented by Perillos of Athens between 570 and 554 BC. This bull was an instrument of torture during the reign of Phalaris, a tyrant of Acragas, in Sicily. Phalaris was the one who commissioned the construction of this instrument of torture.


Mục lục

Buckley là một trong số sáu lớp tàu khu trục hộ tống được Hải quân Hoa Kỳ chế tạo nhằm đáp ứng nhu cầu hộ tống vận tải trong Thế Chiến II, sau khi Hoa Kỳ chính thức tham chiến vào cuối năm 1941. Chúng hầu như tương tự nhau, chỉ với những khác biệt về hệ thống động lực và vũ khí trang bị. Động cơ của phân lớp Backley bao gồm hai turbine hơi nước General Electric để dẫn động hai máy phát điện vận hành hai trục chân vịt, và dàn vũ khí chính bao gồm 3 khẩu pháo pháo 3 in (76 mm)/50 cal. [1] [2]

Những chiếc phân lớp Buckley (TE) có chiều dài ở mực nước 300 ft (91 m) và chiều dài chung 306 ft (93 m) mạn tàu rộng 37 ft 1 in (11,30 m) và độ sâu mớn nước khi đầy tải là 11 ft 3 in (3,43 m). Chúng có trọng lượng choán nước tiêu chuẩn 1.430 tấn Anh (1.450 t) và lên đến 1.823 tấn Anh (1.852 t) khi đầy tải. [3] Hệ thống động lực bao gồm hai nồi hơi và hai turbine hơi nước General Electric công suất 13.500 mã lực (10.100 kW), dẫn động hai máy phát điện công suất 9.200 kilôwatt (12.300 hp) để vận hành hai trục chân vịt [1] [2] công suất 12.000 hp (8.900 kW) cho phép đạt được tốc độ tối đa 23 kn (26 mph 43 km/h). Con tàu mang theo 359 tấn Anh (365 t) dầu đốt, cho phép di chuyển đến 6.000 nmi (6.900 dặm 11.000 km) ở vận tốc đường trường 12 kn (14 mph 22 km/h). [3]

Vũ khí trang bị bao gồm pháo 3 in (76 mm)/50 cal trên ba tháp pháo nòng đơn đa dụng (có thể đối hạm hoặc phòng không), gồm hai khẩu phía mũi và một khẩu phía đuôi. Vũ khí phòng không tầm gần bao gồm hai pháo Bofors 40 mm và tám pháo phòng không Oerlikon 20 mm. Con tàu có ba ống phóng ngư lôi Mark 15 21 inch (533 mm). Vũ khí chống ngầm bao gồm một dàn súng cối chống tàu ngầm Hedgehog Mk. 10 (có 24 nòng và mang theo 144 quả đạn) hai đường ray Mk. 9 và bốn máy phóng K3 Mk. 6 để thả mìn sâu. [3] [4] Thủy thủ đoàn đầy đủ bao gồm 200 sĩ quan và thủy thủ. [3]

Cranstoun được đặt lườn như là chiếc DE-82 (chưa đặt tên) tại xưởng tàu của hãng Bethlehem-Hingham Steel Shipyard ở Hingham, Massachusetts vào ngày 9 tháng 6, 1943 và được hạ thủy vào ngày 28 tháng 8, 1943. [5] [6] Con tàu được chuyển giao cho Anh Quốc, và nhập biên chế cùng Hải quân Anh như là chiếc HMS Cranstoun (K511) vào ngày 13 tháng 11, 1943 [5] [6] dưới quyền chỉ huy của Hạm trưởng, Thiếu tá Hải quân Eric Wingate Rainey. [6]

Cranstoun đã phục vụ hộ tống vận tải ven biển dưới quyền Bộ chỉ huy Nore trong gần suốt cuộc chiến tranh, trước khi được điều động sang Đội hộ tống 19. [7]

Vào ngày 15 tháng 4, 1945, đang khi hoạt động hộ tống cho Đoàn tàu TBC 128 trong eo biển Manche, lúc 21 giờ 14 phút, Cranstoun và tàu frigate Loch Killin (K391) phát hiện tàu ngầm U-boat Đức U-1063 ngoài khơi vịnh Bigbury, Devon. Hai con tàu đã phối hợp tấn công, Cranstoun với một loạt súng cối chống ngầm Hedgehog và Loch Killin với ba loạt súng cối Squid, buộc chiếc U-boat phải nổi lên mặt nước. Sau đó còn có Burges (K347) cùng tham gia cuộc tấn công, cả ba chiếc tàu frigate cùng nả pháo 40 mm và 20 mm vào chiếc U-boat bị các đèn pha tìm kiếm chiếu sáng. U-1063 tìm cách lặn xuống để lẫn trốn, nhưng một loạt mìn sâu của Loch Killin đã đánh chìm đối thủ tại tọa độ 50°08′54″B 03°53′24″T  /  50,14833°B 3,89°T  / 50.14833 -3.89000 . Chỉ có 17 thành viên thủy thủ đoàn của U-1063 sống sót được cứu vớt, 29 người khác đã tử trận. [8] [9]

Cranstoun được chính thức hoàn trả cho Hoa Kỳ vào ngày 3 tháng 12, 1945, [5] [6] nhằm giảm bớt chi phí mà Anh phải trả cho Hoa Kỳ trong Chương trình Cho thuê-Cho mượn (Lend-Lease). Do dư thừa so với nhu cầu về tàu chiến sau khi chiến tranh đã chấm dứt, nó được rút tên khỏi danh sách Đăng bạ Hải quân Hoa Kỳ vào ngày 7 tháng 2, 1946 [5] và bị bán để tháo dỡ vào ngày 20 tháng 11, 1947. [5]


History of Red Bull

The original Red Bull drink was developed in 1962 by Chaleo Voovidhya, a Thai businessman, and sold under the name Krating Daeng (Thai for Red Bull) by the company TC Pharmaceutical. The recipe was based on Lipovitan, an earlier energy drink that had been introduced to Thailand from Japan. Krating Daeng sales soared across Asia in the 1970’s and 1980’s, especially among truck drivers, construction workers and farmers. The working class image was boosted by sponsorship of Thai boxing matches, where the logo of two red bulls charging each other was often on display.

The Thai product was transformed into a global brand by Dietrich Mateschitz, an Austrian entrepreneur. Mateschitz was international marketing director for Blendax, a German toothpaste company, when he visited Thailand in 1982 and discovered that Krating Daeng helped to cure his jet lag. Between 1984 and 1987, Mateschitz worked with TC Pharmaceutical (a Blendax licensee) to adapt Krating Daeng for European audiences. At the same time Mateschitz and Voovidhya founded Red Bull GmbH each investing $500,000 of savings and taking a 49% stake in the new company. They gave the remaining 2% to Yoovidhya’s son Chalerm, but it was agreed that Mateschitz would run the company. Red Bull GmbH launched the “Austrian” version of Red Bull in 1987, which is carbonated and not as sweet as the original Thai recipe. It is the Austrian formula that has taken almost half of the US market for energy drinks, and up to 80% of the market in some other countries.

In addition to owning half of Red Bull GmbH, Chaleo and his son continue to market the original formula across Asia. In 2006, Forbes Magazine listed Chaleo as being the 292 richest person in the world with an estimated net worth of over $2.5 billion while Mateschitz was listed at number 317.

The architecturally spectacular headquarters of Red Bull GmbH are located in Fuschl am See, Austria.


Battle Begins at Bull Run

McDowell’s Union force struck on July 21, shelling the enemy across Bull Run while more troops crossed the river at Sudley Ford in an attempt to hit the Confederate left flank. Over two hours, 10,000 Federals gradually pushed back 4,500 rebels across the Warrington turnpike and up Henry House Hill. Reporters, congressmen and other onlookers who had traveled from Washington and were watching the battle from the nearby countryside prematurely celebrated a Union victory, but reinforcements from both Johnston and Beauregard’s armies soon arrived on the battlefield to rally the Confederate troops. In the afternoon, both sides traded attacks and counterattacks near Henry House Hill. On Johnston and Beauregard’s orders, more and more Confederate reinforcements arrived, even as the Federals struggled with coordinating assaults made by different regiments.


How America’s Dog Became Public Enemy #1 – And Why They’re Making Such A Comeback

Love them or hate them — there’s rarely an in-between when it comes to the neverending debate of Pit Bull type breeds and their place in society. But how exactly did Pit Bulls go from being “America’s Dog” at the turn of the 20th century to the most vilified breed of the past few decades? BarkPost did some digging to find the history of where and how it all went wrong.

First, a little backstory and clarification for those who aren’t completely familiar with what “Pit Bulls” actually are. Pit Bulls are not one specific breed, but rather a classification of several breeds (Staffordshire Terriers, American Pit Bull Terriers, American Bullies, American Staffordshire Terriers, and sometimes American Bulldogs and Bull Terriers).

These were originally bred from Old English Bulldogs, who gained popularity in the 1800s on the British Isles in a blood sport known as “bull baiting” (tying a bull to an iron stake that gave him approximately 30 feet to move, and then setting dogs on it in an attempt to immobilize the bull for public entertainment). Bloodsports were outlawed in 1835 in the UK, so “rat-baiting” and dogfighting – which were easier to hide from police – became the new sports of popularity. Bulldogs were crossed with Terriers and then released into a “pit” to chase and kill rats or fight one another, thus beginning the “Pit Bull” type of dog.

Vintage depictions of “bull baiting” (top) and dogfighting (bottom)

In the early stages of America, many immigrants brought their treasured Pit Bull dogs over as part of their families. Though the dogs were bred for fighting sports, the were also incredibly intelligent and friendly. They were used for a variety of jobs that included farming, protecting the family from predators, watching the children, and providing companionship. As the popularity of newspapers and media grew throughout the years, many of these dogs were brought to attention for the number of exemplary deeds they performed.

How, you might ask, could a dog that was bred to fight aggressively also be kind to humans? The answer is actually in their breeding. Pit Bulls that bit handlers were put down and of no use to the owners, so they were bred and trained to be gentle with humans — a trait that most are still well-known for to this day.

You may have heard that Pit Bulls were known as “Nanny Dogs,” watching children while the families were out working in the fields or otherwise not present. Many groups and media outlets have reported on this phenomenan, while others have tried to dispel it as a myth.

Truthfully, there is no credible source to support either of those statements (and you should never leave small children unsupervised with any breed of dog), but one thing is for certain — there are a ton of vintage photographs that show Pit Bulls with children that prove they were popular family pets and trusted around their kids (at least for as long as one of those old–timey photographs took to make!).

What is documented, however, is that there have been a number of notable figures throughout history that were avid Pit Bull owners and supporters. Some of these people include: Theodore Roosevelt, Helen Keller, Thomas Edison, Laura Ingalls Wilder, Fred Astaire, and Humphrey Bogart, to name a few.

Though some believe that Helen Keller’s dog was actually a large Boston Terrier, Bostons were also bred to fight in the ring and considered to be “Pit Bulls” at that time. She was a dog lover and had several breeds in her life, including Mastiffs and Spaniels, but wrote in her autobiography The Story of My Life:

“Whenever it is possible, my dog accompanies me on a walk or ride or sail. I have had many dog friends–huge mastiffs, soft-eyed spaniels, wood-wise setters and honest, homely bull terriers. At present the lord of my affections is one of these bull terriers. He has a long pedigree, a crooked tail and the drollest ‘phiz’ in dogdom. My dog friends seem to understand my limitations, and always keep close beside me when I am alone. I love their affectionate ways and the eloquent wag of their tails.”

Helen Keller had many dogs in her lifetime, including a large Boston/Bull Terrier on the left and what can only be identified as a “Pit Bull” on the right

There have been a number of Pit Bulls that were famous throughout the 20th Century when they were still lauded as American Heroes. One of the earliest of these was Bud, a dog who accompanied his owner Horatio Nelson Jackson on the first cross–country road trip in 1903. Jackson and his traveling companion found Bud about halfway through their trip, and he gained almost as much attention as his new owner. Bud’s goggles are still on display at the National Smithsonian today, and he became the face of The Auto Era in advertising.

Bud The Cross Country Pit Bull

During WWI and WWII, Pit Bulls were used in advertising as a national mascot. These dogs were so loved that America made them their sign of fearlessness and protection (and in some early ads, neutrality) in many advertisements. A popular ad included the Pit Bull dressed as an American military symbol with breeds like German Mastiffs and French Bulldogs representing other countries.

In fact, Pit Bulls were some of the first dogs used in American war time. Sergeant Stubby is one of the most well–known war dogs. Originally a stray with a “stubbed” tail found near an Army training camp at Yale, Stubby was taken in and trained to respond to bugle calls, march with troops, and even salute fellow soldiers! His owner smuggled him overseas to fight in WWI, where he served 18 months on the frontlines in 17 battles and 4 different campaigns.

Among the countless stories of heroic acts he performed, Stubby was known for distinguishing between American soldiers and their enemies when getting his comrades help, carrying messages under fire, and detecting incoming attacks of mustard gas and alerting his humans. He even sniffed out a German spy, bit him on the butt, and held on until human help arrived. What a dog!!

Sergeant Stubby wearing his jacket decorated with medals

Stubby is just one example out of the many other Pit Bull types dating back to the Civil War and beyond who served their country, and Bud is only one of the prominent Pit Bull types in the history of advertising and entertainment during the early 20th century. After all, who could forget one of the most famous Pit Bulls of all time – Petey from the Little Rascals! Pete the Pup was originally played by a show biz dog named Pal (and later his offspring, not-so-ironically named Pete), who was also cast as the live version of cartoon Buster Brown’s dog Tige (yet another popular Pittie in the media).

Pal aka Pete the Pup from The Little Rascals

So with all of these stellar examples of beloved and well–mannered Pit Bulls in history, where did it all start to go wrong?

In the 1960s, 󈨊s, and particularly 󈨔s, dogfighting began to see a resurgence. As people saw more of these large dogs in spiked collars on street corners, a natural fear evolved. In conjunction with fighting, it was not uncommon for owners of these dogs to be abusive and encouraged aggressive behaviors to boost their intimidating image. They also took to breeding their own dogs outside of American Kennel Club and American Dog Breeding Association regulations, leading to an overpopulation of Pit Bull types. These things still take place today, despite the outlawing of all dog fighting in 1978, and continue to contribute to the negative image of the Pit Bull.

What many saw as the definitive turning point in the media protrayal and demonization of these breeds was the 1987 Time Magazine cover story entitled “The Pit Bull Friend and Killer.” The cover showed a Pit Bull-type with teeth bared, and the story itself has a lean toward statistics that portrayed the breeds in an unfavorable light. This is also around the same time that breed specific legislation began to take hold. (The first recorded city to pass a breed specific law was Hollywood, FL, in 1980.)

A “Tail” Of Two Covers: 1987 article (left) against Pit Bulls, and a 2008 article (right) with a brighter perspective

Pit Bulls are hardly the first dog to be feared. As evidenced above, they were long held as an American favorite, while breeds like Newfoundlands, Dobermans, German Shepherds, Rottweilers, and Northern breeds such as Huskies and Malamutes were stigmatized.

In fact, it was actually the Bloodhound that was one of the first to receive this treatment. In the late 19th to early 20th century, Bloodhounds were used to track down slaves and criminals. Many vaudeville productions of Uncle Tom’s Cabin portrayed them as vicious, blood–thirsty beasts, and they showed up frequently in the media as newpapers gained more popularity after the Civil War. The media has long been sensationalizing such stories in an effort to gain readership, but it has been the dogs who have suffered far more than people have.

Unfortunately, there are a few reasons as to why the negative image of Pit Bull types has stuck around for longer than the rest. One is that they are still frequently associated with sordid individuals who overbreed them and use them in fighting rings, as proven in the high–profile case of football player Michael Vick. Another is that they are the most reported on of any breed involved in domestic disputes because of their notoriety, and the current target of most breed specific legislation laws. You don’t read too much about a Labrador biting anyone, but you can be sure that it happens because any dog has the capacity to do so under the wrong circumstances.

Those aforementioned statistics involving breeding and cruelty play a huge role in the public perception and reported incidents. While Pit Bull-type dogs get the most press about “attacks,” they consistently rank among the least aggressive breeds in temperament tests.

The Pacific Standard Magazine had some very interesting statistics and opinions about dog bites to report in their 2014 article “The Tragedy of America’s Dog.” The following excerpt highlights that compared to the number of estimated Pit Bull types vs. bites reported, Pit Bulls were actually on the low end of those to be considered dangerous.

“…Between 1965 and 2001, there have been 60 lethal dog-attacks in the United States involving a Pit Bull. Compared to most breeds, that figure is indeed quite high. There were only 14 lethal attacks involving Dobermans, for instance. But taking into account the overall populations of each breed measured, the rate of aggression among Pit Bulls is comparatively quite normal. Even low. During that 36-year period, only 0.0012 percent of the estimated Pit Bull population was involved in a fatal attack. Compare that to the purebred Chow Chow, which has a fatal-attack rate of 0.005 percent, and consistently ranks as the least child-friendly dog breed on the market. Why don’t media reports of attacks involving Chows eclipse those involving Pit Bulls? Because there are only 240,000 registered Chow Chows currently residing in the United States. And frankly, the broad-skulled, wide-mouthed Pit Bull makes for a more convincing monster than the comically puffy Chow.”

Thankfully, more and more people are getting on board with the fight for Pit Bulls’ rights. Though a horrible atrocity, the Michael Vick case in 2007 did wonders in terms of how dogs rescued from fighting rings are treated. Previously deemed as unable to be rehabilitated, several groups like Best Friends Animal Society and Bad Rap lobbied to take a chance at working with them and most went on to live peacefully in homes with other pets and children. (If you haven’t seen The Champions, it’s a must–watch!)

Since then, Pit Bulls have gotten more positive attention, because if dogs who had been abused and trained to fight could be rehabilitated, imagine the possibilities for the hundreds of thousands more who are simply born to irresponsible breeding or given up because people don’t understand the responsibilities that come with having a dog. Even Sports Illustrated, whose 1987 article had stoked the pandemic fear against Pit Bulls, reported on the rehabilitation of the Vick dogs in 2008 and painted them in a far more positive light (see their apology cover above).

Six of the “Vicktory” dogs that were rescued and rehabilitated from Michael Vick’s fighting compound

Things are looking up in terms of BSL (breed specific legislation) too! Last month, Arizona became the 20th state to ban BSL. There have been recent setbacks with major Canadian cities starting the trend of BSL, but at least America is on the right track!

And many Pit Bulls are still heroes in the present day, with more being trained to be service animals all the time. Search and Rescue Pitties Cheyanne, Dakota, and Tahoe were involved in missions for 9/11 at the World Trade Center and Pentagon, the 2003 shuttle disaster for NASA, the Laci Peterson investigation, and many other high profile cases, in addition to being certified therapy dogs and working in educational groups to teach people about dogs. There’s an increasing number of Pit Bull types being rescued and trained to work on police forces.

So many Pittie pets are becoming certified to visit hospitals and provide comfort. They’re highly trainable, sensitive, loving animals and there really is no end to the things they can accomplish. They just need to be given the chance.

Kris Crawford and search–and–rescue hero Pit Bulls Cheyanne, Tahoe, and Dakota So before you buy into the media and hype, before you let a few mistreated and misunderstood animals who have have unfortunately hurt another due to lack of training and socialization (or worse, due to abuse) skew your view, please ask yourself: “Do I know what I’m talking about, have I actually even met a Pit Bull-type and given them a chance, or am I just believing what the media wants me to?” We all know the agenda, and we all know that many outlets report on what will get them the highest ratings or viewers.

Pit Bulls are not a statistic. They are not monsters. They aren’t born into this world wanting to kill. They are an unfortunate victim of a lot of difficult circumstances. And they forgive you. They forgive those that have hurt them, they forgive you for being afraid, and they forgive you for not understanding. Because all they really want is a chance to prove to you what sweet, charming, intelligent, goofy, LOVING animals they are.