Fire sweeps through Oakland hills

Fire sweeps through Oakland hills

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On October 19, 1991, a fire begins in the hills of Oakland, California. Despite the fact that fires had ravaged the same area three times earlier in the century, people continued to build homes there.

Fires had previously raged through the hills in 1923, 1970 and 1980. Each time, the fires occurred during autumn in a year with relatively little precipitation, and, each time, the residents rebuilt and moved back in as soon as possible. The deadly 1991 fire can be traced to a small fire at 7151 Buckingham Boulevard on October 19. Firefighters responded quickly and thought they had brought the blaze under control. However, heat from the fire had caused pine needles to fall from the trees and cover the ground.

When highly flammable debris, also known as “duff,” accumulates on the ground, fires can smolder unseen. At 10:45 a.m. on October 19, strong winds blew one of these unseen fires up a hillside; changing wind patterns then caused it to spread in different directions.

The winds were so intense and the area was so dry that within an hour close to 800 buildings were on fire. The wind then blew southwest, pushing the fire toward San Francisco Bay. In some places, the temperature reached 2,000 degrees Fahrenheit, making it virtually impossible to fight the fire effectively. Homeowners attempted to hose down their roofs, but were often thwarted when water pipes burst from the fire. Also, many homes had wooden shingle roofs that were particularly susceptible to fire—it took only 10 minutes in some cases for a house to be brought down by the flames.

Firefighting efforts were constrained by the fact that the affected homes were located on steep hills with very narrow streets. This made it difficult to maintain radio communications and to move large fire engines close to the flames. The fire spread so rapidly that firefighters were unable to establish a perimeter. When the fire was finally contained the following day, 25 people had lost their lives, 150 people were injured and 3,000 homes and 1,500 acres had been consumed. The total tally of damages was $1.5 billion.

In the aftermath, authorities attempted to reduce the likelihood of a similar fire breaking out the in the future. Laws were changed regarding the maximum height of trees permitted and the type of vegetation that was allowable in the area. In addition, most homes that have been rebuilt do not have wooden roofs.

READ MORE: California Wildfires Have Been Fought by Prisoners Since WWII

Fire sweeps through Oakland hills - HISTORY

Fire Chief Engineer Dennis T. Sullivan was mortally wounded when the dome of the California Theatre and hotel crashed through the fire station in which he was living at 410-412 Bush St. Acting Chief Engineer John Dougherty commanded fire operations.

The earthquake shock was felt from Coos Bay, Oregon, to Los Angeles, and as far east as central Nevada, an area of about 375,000 square miles, approximately half of which was in the Pacific Ocean. The region of destructive effect extended from the southern part of Fresno County to Eureka, about 400 miles, and for a distance of 25 to 30 miles on either side of the fault zone. The distribution of intensity within the region of destruction was uneven. Of course, all structures standing on or crossing the rift were destroyed or badly damaged. Many trees standing near the fault were either uprooted or broken off. Perhaps the most marked destruction of trees was near Loma Prieta in Santa Cruz County, where, according to Dr. John C. Branner of Stanford University, “The forest looked as though a swath had been cut through it two hundred feet in width.” In little less than a mile he counted 345 earthquake cracks running in all directions.

U.S. Post Office at Seventh and Mission sts. was dreadfully damaged by the earthquake. Assistant to the Postmaster Burke said, “walls had been thrown into the middle of various rooms, destroying furniture and covering everything with dust. In the main corridors the marble was split and cracked, while the mosaics were shattered and had come rattling down upon the floor. Chandeliers were rent and twisted by falling arches and ceilings.”

Fireman James O’Neill, drawing water for the horses in Fire Station No. 4 on Howard Street opposite Hawthorne, was killed when a wall of the American Hotel collapsed onto the fire station.

Police officer Max Fenner was mortally wounded when a wall collapsed upon him at 138 Mason Street.

All telephone and telegraph communications stopped within the city, although some commercial telegraph circuits to New York and to India, via the Pacific cable at the Ocean Beach, remained in temporary operation.

A messenger arrived at Ft. Mason at 6:30 a.m. with orders from Gen. Funston to send all available troops to report to the mayor at the Hall of Justice.

First army troops from Fort Mason reported to Mayor Schmitz at the Hall of Justice around 7 a.m.

At 8 a.m., the 10th, 29th, 38th, 66th, 67th, 70th and 105th Companies of Coast Artillery, Troops I and K of the 14th Cavalry and the First, Ninth and 24th Batteries of Field Artillery arrived Downtown to take up patrol.

Seventy-five soldiers from Companies C and D, Engineer Corps were assigned to the Financial District at 8 a.m., and another 75 along Market from Third Street to the City Hall at Grove and Larkin streets.

A major aftershock struck at 8:14 a.m., and caused the collapse of many damaged buildings. There was much panic.

Second day session of the Grand Chapter of the Royal Arch Masons of the state of California fifty-second annual convocation. The group met after the earthquake but evacuated before the temple at Montgomery and Post streets was destroyed by fire. The Masons listed the date as April 18, A.I. 2436, A.D.

At 10 a.m. Headquarters and First Battalion 22nd Infantry, were brought from Ft. McDowell by boat, and were held for a time in reserve at O’Farrell St. They were later utilized as patrols and to assist the fire department.

At about 10:05 a.m. the DeForest Wireless Telegraph Station at San Diego radioed press reports of the disaster at San Francisco to the “U.S.S. Chicago.” Admiral Caspar Goodrich immediately ordered fires started under all boilers, and after a confirmation message from the Mayor of San Diego, the “Chicago” steamed at full speed for San Francisco. It was the first time wireless telegraphy was used in a major natural disaster.

At 10:30 a.m., the “U.S.S. Preble” from Mare Island, under the command of Lt. Frederick Newton Freeman, landed a hospital shore party at the foot of Howard St. to help the wounded and dying who sought help at Harbor Emergency Hospital.

Another fire broke out at 395 Hayes St. on the southwest corner of Hayes and Gough. It would become known as the “Ham and Egg” fire, and would destroy part of the Western Addition, the Mechanics’ Pavilion, City Hall and then jump Market Street at Ninth.

General Funston’s staff abandoned the Dept. of California’s Headquarters in the Phelan Building, across from the Palace Hotel, at 11 a.m. They did manage to save valuable records.

Winchester Hotel caught fire at Third and Stevenson streets and collapsed at 11 a.m.

Fort Miley troops, the 25th and 64th Companies Coast Artillery, arrived at 11:30 a.m.

Two earthquake in Los Angeles just before noon, about ten minutes apart. The quaking began as crowds gathered around bulletin boards to read the latest telegraphic dispatches from San Francisco. Thousands ran in panic when the earthquakes struck.

Hearst Building at Third and Market streets caught fire at noon.

Evacuation of the injured from Mechanics’ Pavilion, Grove and Larkin, began at noon because of the spreading “Ham and Egg” fire. The wounded were taken to Golden Gate Park, Children’s Hospital and the Presidio.

Mechanics’ Pavilion took fire at 1 p.m.

St. Mary’s Hospital at First and Bryant sts. was abandoned to the fire at 1 p.m. Patients were loaded aboard the ferryboat “Modoc” and taken to Oakland.
Entire area in the Financial District, behind the Hall of Justice, was on fire by 1 p.m.

Fires so threatened the Portsmouth Square area by 1 p.m. that General Manager Hewitt of the Dept. of Electricity decided to abandon the Central Fire Alarm Station at 15 Brenham Place in Chinatown.

Restaurant atop the Call, or Claus Spreckels Building, at Third and Market streets, took fire at 2 p.m.

Postal Telegraph operators transmitted their last message to the outside world as army troops ordered them from the building at 534 Market St., opposite Second St., at 2:20 p.m. because of the approaching fire.

Latest casualty count: 750 people seriously injured people were being treated at various hospitals at 2:30 p.m.

Dynamiting of buildings around the U.S. Mint at Fifth and Mission streets began at 2:30 p.m.

U.S. Army Signal Corps established Ferry Building telegraph operations at 3 p.m.

Mayor Schmitz appointed the Committee of Fifty at 3 p.m. at the Hall of Justice. The mayor also said:

Fifty or more corpses had been buried by the police in Portsmouth Square by 5 p.m because the morgue and police pistol range could hold no more bodies.

Mayor Schmitz, at 8 p.m., was still confident that a good part of downtown could be saved. Unfortunately a possible arsonist set fire to the Delmonico Restaurant in the Alcazar Theatre Building on O’Farrell near Stockton, and that blaze burned into Downtown and to Nob Hill.

War Department received a telegram from Gen. Funston at 8:40 p.m., Pacific Coast time, that asked for thousands of tents and all available rations. Funston placed the death toll at 1000.

Firefighters attempted to make a stand at 9 p.m. along Powell St. between Sutter and Pine, but it was unsuccessful in keeping the fire from sweeping up Nob Hill.

Crocker- Woolworth Bank Building at Post and Market took fire at 9 p.m. April 19, 1906
Governor Pardee arrived in Oakland at 2 a.m. He was supposed to arrive three hours earlier, but his train was stalled because of sinking of the track in the Susuin marshes. The governor said he would declare a bank holiday today.

St. Francis Hotel at Union Square caught fire at 2:30 a.m.

Mayor Schmitz and Capt. Thomas Magner of Engine No. 3 found a cistern at the Hopkins Mansion, Mason and California streets, at 4 a.m., and attempted to keep the fire from burning the structure. They were not successful.

Secretary of War Taft at 4 a.m. ordered 200,000 rations sent to San Francisco from the Vancouver Barracks.

Secretary Taft ordered all hospital, wall and conical tents sent to San Francisco from army posts at Vancouver Forts Douglas, Logan, Snelling, Sheridan and Russell, from San Antonio and the Presidio of Monterey.

Secretary Taft wired Gen. Funston at 4:55 a.m. that all tents in the U.S. Army were en route to San Francisco.

“Call,” “Chronicle” and “Examiner” printed a combined newspaper today on the presses of the “Oakland Herald.”

176 prisoners moved from city prison to Alcatraz.

“U.S.S. Chicago” arrived in San Francisco Bay at 6 p.m.

The Great Fire reached Van Ness Avenue during the evening. The army dynamited mansions along the street in an attempt to build a fire break. Demolition to stop the fire was ordered by Colonel Charles Morris of the Artillery Corps. April 20, 1906
The fire burned as far as Franklin St. by 5 a.m., then attempted to circle south.

At the foot of Van Ness Avenue, 16 enlisted men and two officers from the “U.S.S. Chicago” supervised the rescue of 20,000 refugees fleeing the Great Fire. It was the largest evacuation by sea in history, and probably as large as the evacuation of Dunkirk during World War II.

Fire approached the Appraisers’ Building for a second time at 3 p.m. Lt. Freeman attempted to pump saltwater from the Bay but found that his hose connections would not fit those of the Fire Department, so the effort was abandoned.

Gen. Funston issued General Orders No. 37 which placed Lt. Col. George Torney of the Medical Department in full control of sanitation in San Francisco.

Gen. Funston wired War Department at 8:30 p.m. on status of the fire. He advised that Fort Mason has been saved, and some looters have been shot. His telegram said most casualties are in the poorer districts, South of Market St. not many killed in better portion of the city. April 21, 1906
Haig Patigian’s statue of President McKinley, commissioned for the city of Arcata, found in the rubble of a local foundry and saved by several artisans who carried it into the street.

The fire that swept the Mission District was stopped at 20th and Dolores sts. by three- thousand volunteers and a few firemen who fought the blaze with knapsacks, brooms and a little water from an operating hydrant at 20th and Church. April 22, 1906
Fire Chief Engineer Dennis T. Sullivan died at the Army General Hospital at the Presidio at 1 a.m.

Father Ricard at the University of Santa Clara wrote to the “San Jose Mercury”:

United Railroad crews began stringing temporary overhead trolley wires on Market St., but did not repair the cable traction system in the street. April 23, 1906
Governor Pardee told a newspaper reporter, “The work of rebuilding San Francisco has commenced, and I expect to see the great metropolis replaced on a much grander scale than ever before.”

Imperial decree on the 30th Day of the Third Moon from Empress Dowager of China to send 100,000 taels as a personal contribution to the relief of the San Francisco sufferers. President Theodore Roosevelt declined the offer, as well as donations from other foreign governments. Return to the 1906 Earthquake exhibit. Return to the top of the page.

Seen From Above: California Fires Reduced Entire Communities to Ash

Drone footage shows block after block of homes leveled by fire.

“The wind’s going to pick up this afternoon, and there’s a lot of concerns about where the fires will go,” Robert Giordano, the Sonoma County sheriff, said on Wednesday. “If you have a place to go, go. The less people we have here and the less area we have to evacuate, the better.”

More than 20,000 people have heeded evacuation warnings, fleeing on foot and by car as the fires overtook their towns — local governments issued new evacuation orders early Wednesday — and many of them have spent nights in dozens of evacuation centers set up around the region. Survivors told of narrow escapes from walls of flame that seemed to erupt from nowhere on Sunday night and Monday morning, forcing them to run even before text messages and other alerts were sent out by emergency warning systems.

“We always thought the alert system would give us time, but there was no notice, no warning,” said Maureen Grinnell, 77, who lived in the hills north of Napa with her husband, Sheldon, 89, who uses a walker. “I was watching a movie with my 19-year-old granddaughter and I smelled smoke, and I looked out the window to see flames approaching.”

From that moment, they stayed with the house seven to 10 minutes, she said — just long enough to load the three of them, a dog and a handful of belongings into a car.

“By the time I started to back the car out of the garage, the house was already on fire,” Ms. Grinnell said. “I drove down the road through smoke with flames on both sides. It almost looked like the burning of Atlanta in ‘Gone With the Wind.’”

Pamela Taylor, 66, at first watched the fire from the mobile home park in Santa Rosa where she lived, thinking it was not near enough to pose a threat — and then, suddenly, it was. “A gigantic fireball jumped across the freeway to the trees around the trailer park,” she said, and within minutes, trailers and cars were ablaze, and people were fleeing.

Fire Activity Map

There are two major types of current fire information: fire perimeter and hot spot data:

  • Fire perimeter data are generally collected by a combination of aerial sensors and on-the-ground information. These data are used to make highly accurate perimeter maps for firefighters and other emergency personnel, but are generally updated only once every 12 hours.
  • "Hot spot" data uses satellite detection to identify areas of high temperature. VIIRS and MODIS thermal activity data is not as accurate as fire perimeter data (it is collected on a 1km scale), but it is updated twice daily.

In addition to fire, it is important to stay informed about wind conditions and air quality:

  • Wind patterns can help you understand the potential for growth and direction that a fire may move. has an easy to read map of wind direction and strength to help keep track of wind patterns.
  • Air Quality can impact health, especially with children. AirNow has information on current air quality conditions, including smoke plume maps.

While these maps are quick and convenient, it is also important to watch for more timely and detailed information from your local state and county office. Information for state responsibility incidents (usually over a certain size) will be posted on the Statewide Fire Information website. Federally responsible incident information are available on the National Wildfire Coordinating Group's Inciweb site.

Apps and Social Media

For the best source of up to date information about evacuations and road closures, seek out your local county and city government resources. These sites will often have other information, including PDF maps, evacuation information, and road closures.

Smartphone apps can also provide helpful information about real time conditions.

Disclaimer: This following is not an exhaustive list nor does it constitute an endorsement.

  • Breezometer (Android) (ios), Provides air quality information.
  • Twitter (Android) (ios), Note that unless it comes directly from a government agency's site, the information may not be entirely accurate. Search for accounts from your local media outlets, fire agencies, and government agencies.

We hope this information can be of use, and that everyone stays safe during this terrifying and tragic time. Thank you to those who are fighting these fires and providing these resources so we can know what is going on.

Deadliest nightclub fires in U.S. history

Panicked friends and family came to the scene of the warehouse fire in Oakland, California, trying to find out if their loved ones were among the dead. (Dec. 3)

Firefighters work at the aftermath of the warehouse fire in Oakland, Calif., Dec. 3, 2016. (Photo: John G. Mabanglo, european pressphoto agency)

At least 24 people were killed in Oakland after a massive fire erupted during a dance party Friday night in a warehouse and artist collective. As authorities search the rubble of the converted party space, expecting the death toll to climb, here's a look at the deadliest U.S. nightclub fires:

Death toll rises to 33 in Oakland warehouse fire

Feb, 20, 2003 — The Station nightclub, Warwick, R.I.: 100 dead more than 200 injured. Fireworks ignited flammable sound insulation during a show by the the rock band Great White and engulfed the club with smoke and flames.

March 25, 1990 — Happy Land nightclub, New York: 87 dead. A disgruntled ex-boyfriend doused the club with gasoline while his girlfriend was inside. The Bronx club's only exit was set ablaze and the doors jammed shut, trapping people inside.

May 28, 1977 — Beverly Hills Supper Club, Southgate, Ky.: 165 dead, more than 200 injured. A Memorial Day fire broke out in an overcrowded club with poor safety standards.

Death toll rises to 33 in Oakland warehouse fire

June 30, 1974 — Gulliver's nightclub, Port Chester, N.Y.: 24 dead. An arsonist set the club on fire in an attempt to cover up a burglary at a next-door bowling alley.

June 24, 1973 — UpStairs Lounge, New Orleans: 32 dead. This unsolved arson attack on a gay bar had been the worst attack on a U.S. gay bar until the Orlando shooting massacre in June left 49 people dead.

Nov. 28, 1942 — Cocoanut Grove, Boston: 492 dead. This was the deadliest nightclub fire in U.S. history. The tragedy at one of the top clubs in the post-Prohibition era prompted increased safety standards at bars, such as sprinklers and accessible exits.

April 23, 1940 — Rhythm Club, Natchez, Miss.: 209 dead. Spanish moss that lined the dance hall was engulfed in flames. The windows had been boarded up to prevent people from sneaking into the club.

Sept. 20, 1929 — Study Club, Detroit: 22 dead. Fire broke out at a speakeasy.

Fires we're watching

Willow Fire

Started : June 18, 2021

Acres burned : 2,877

Containment : 26%

Description : Monterey County officials ordered evacuations Friday for an area near China Camp Campground in response to a wildfire burning about seven miles west of the Arroyo Seco Campground in the Los Padres National Forest.

Mojave Fire

Started : June 17, 2021

Acres burned : 2,490

Containment : 95%

Description : On Thursday June 17, thunderstorms with dry lightning moved through the Mojave National Preserve igniting the Mojave Fire which quickly spread in the Sawtooth Mountain area just south of Halloran Summit. The fire continues to threaten Joshua trees, desert tortoises, and desert bighorn sheep, although crews are making good progress toward containment.

Modoc Fire

Started : June 24, 2021

Acres burned : 100

Containment : 0%

Description : Hwy 395 and Pencil Road, north of Alturas

Inyo Creek Fire

Started : June 18, 2021

Acres burned : 586

Containment : 30%

Description : The fire is on the north facing aspect of Lone Pine Peak in the Inyo Creek drainage, southeast of Whitney Portal. It is inaccessible, rugged terrain.

Mesa Fire

Started : June 23, 2021

Acres burned : 350

Containment : 40%

Description : Fire ignited at Hwy 76 and Cousier Canyon, Community of Pala

Pine Fire

Started : June 23, 2021

Acres burned : 50

Containment : 50%

Description : The fire is burning at Pine Meadow Place and Cloverdale Road, West of Anderson, in Shasta County. Evacuations have been ordered for some residents in the area.

Cow Fire

Started : June 20, 2021

Acres burned : 761

Containment : 85%

Injuries : One injury

Description : The fire started near Highway 44 and South Cow Creek Rd, southeast of Millville in Shasta County.

Overland Fire

Started : June 19, 2021

Acres burned : 515

Containment : 95%

Description : Started at Canebrake Canyon Road and Great Southern Overland Stage Route , East of Mount Laguna.

Past Fires

Wolf Fire

Started : Jan. 19, 2021

Acres burned : 685

Containment : 100%

Description : The fire was located on Highway 166 along the Wind Wolves Preserve.

Bonita Fire

Started : Jan. 15, 2021

Acres burned : 715

Containment : 100%

Description : The fire was located at Bonita Vista Rd and Apple Canyon Rd, north of Garner Valley. Fire activity has been minimal with no growth.

Southern Fire

Started : May 1, 2021

Acres burned : 5,366

Containment : 100%

Damage : 3 structures destroyed

Description : The fire started near the community of Shelter Valley and burned along county Route S-2, also known as the Great Southern Overland Stage Route. Firefighters continue to work in the area.

Gunnison Fire

Started : May 8, 2021

Acres burned : 549

Containment : 100%

Description : The fire burned at Munjar Road and Meridian Road. Evacuation orders were issued for some residents, but have since been lifted.

Pine Fire

Started : May 12, 2021

Acres burned : 442

Containment : 100%

Description : The fire started at Hwy 138 and 248th St in the Pinion Hills in L.A. County.

Palisades Fire

Started : May 14, 2021

Acres burned : 1,202

Containment : 100%

Description : The fire started at Palisades Court and Michael Lane in Topanga Canyon. Evacuation orders have been lifted. Acreage decreased because of better mapping.

Loma Fire

Started : May 17, 2021

Acres burned : 20

Containment : 100%

Description : The blaze erupted in a westside neighborhood of Santa Barbara. Multiple evacuations orders were issued in the area known as TV Hill, but have since been lifted, according to county fire officials.

Live Oak Fire

Started : May 28, 2021

Acres burned : 197

Containment : 100%

Description : The fire started off of Live Oak Road and Yaqui Gulch Road, West of Mormon Bar in Mariposa County.

Sargents Fire

Started : May 30, 2021

Acres burned : 1,100

Containment : 100%

Description : The fire started near Wunpost Road and Sargeant Canyon Road, northeast of Bradley. No structures were threatened by the fire.

Intanko Fire

Started : June 8, 2021

Acres burned : 939

Containment : 100%

Description : A fast-moving vegetation fire erupted in Yuba County on June 8, destroying one home and threatening several more. The wildfire, first reported at 2:02 p.m., was located near Wheatland, 15 miles southeast of Yuba City.

Farm Fire

Started : June 9, 2021

Acres burned : 250

Containment : 100%

Description : Fire started off Ranchero Road and Caliente Road, West of Hesperia.

Park Fire

Started : June 17, 2021

Acres burned : 402

Containment : 100%

Description : The fire started near Upper Park Road and Bidwell Park, northeast of Chico.

Flats Fire

Started : June 13, 2021

Acres burned : 341

Containment : 100%

Injuries : There has been one firefighter injury

Damage : Two homes were destroyed, three homes damaged and three outbuildings have been damaged.

Description : The Flats Fire burned in the Santa Rosa Mountains off Highway 74 near the communities of Pinyon Crest, Pinyon and Alpine Village.

Alabama Fire

Started : June 18, 2021

Acres burned : 560

Containment : 100%

Description : The fire ignited at Whitney Portal Road and Hogback Road, Northwest of Lone Pine.

Success Fire

Started : June 18, 2021

Acres burned : 800

Containment : 100%

Description : Fire started off Success Valley Road and Reservation Road, East of Porterville.

Recent Wildfire News

In-Depth: Chronicle Wildfire Coverage

150 Minutes of Hell: The inside story of death and survival in California’s tornado of fire

A fire’s unfathomable toll: How a California wildfire changed everything for one family

Six months after the Camp Fire, a devastated community looks to rebuild

Camp Fire Visual Essay: A ballet rises from the ashes in fire scarred Paradise

About this data


Fires are labeled when they are larger than 500 acres, cause damage to property, or when people are injured or killed as a result of the fire.

Fire Perimeters

Fire perimeters are based on geographic data from the National Interagency Fire Center, updated once an hour. This map displays all current wildfire fire perimeters available through NIFC that have not been 100% contained. Perimeters do not include prescribed or incident complex fires. Perimeters are not available for every incident.

Fire perimeters for incidents before June 18, 2021 are based on infrared and thermal imaging from NASA's MODIS and VIIRS-I products.

The perimeters are intended to provide a picture of the scope and extent of the fires in California, as well as parts of Nevada and Oregon, with the most current data possible. They are an approximation and do not include all areas affected by fire, nor do they indicate with certainty an area was affected. CalFire and others use this data to help identify fires and their hot spots. But because of the distance of the satellites, the nature of the measurements and obfuscation by smoke, the resolution is coarse and not 100 percent accurate.

The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) displays fire detection data and uses fire and thermal anomalies data compiled via MODIS satellites Terra and Aqua. Thermal information is collected at 1,000-meter spatial resolution. The identification of a "fire" by MODIS does not necessarily mean the entire area represented is on fire. The identification of a fire can be the result of a hot fire in a relatively small area or a cooler fire over a larger area. At this time, there is no way to discriminate between these two possibilities.

The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS-I) provides data from sensors aboard the joint NASA/NOAA Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership satellite. The 375-meter spatial resolution provides a greater response over fires of relatively small areas and provides improved mapping of large fire perimeters. VIIRS-I also has improved nighttime performance.

Hot Spots

Hot spots are locations identified by satellite analysts from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA).

The hot spots are an approximation and do not include all areas affected by fire, nor do they indicate with certainty an area was affected. CalFire and others use this same data to help identify fires and their hot spots. But because of the distance of the satellites, the nature of the measurements and obfuscation by smoke, the resolution is coarse and not 100% accurate.

The Camp Fire Destroyed 11,000 Homes. A Year Later Only 11 Have Been Rebuilt

The sun is setting at a construction site on "the ridge," as locals call it. Towering pine trees with their bark still black from wildfire are lit up in orange. And Chip Gorley and some buddies are about to crack open cans of IPA to celebrate some rare good news.

His foundation inspection passed, meaning they can start putting up the walls on Gorley's new home. It's on the exact site of where he lost everything in the Camp Fire a year ago.

"It's my home," Gorley says. "I'm coming back."


Water Uncertainty Frustrates Victims Of California's Worst Wildfire

Like most who survived the historic wildfire, Gorley remembers it all that terrifying morning — the exploding propane tanks, the snapping of burnt tree limbs, that moment he thought he might die during a chaotic evacuation. But for him at least, talking about it and being open as the anniversary approached has helped.

In Paradise, Calif., several memorials and commemorations were planned marking the anniversary through the weekend, including 85 seconds of silence at 11:08 a.m. on Nov. 8, for the 85 lives lost in the wildfire.

Despite the trauma, Gorley says he never doubted that his hometown would recover.

"It'll come back, it'll just be a slow grow," Gorley says. "As to when it will get back to where it's [even ] half the population, I don't know."

Many of Gorley's friends have moved out of state. There was already a housing shortage — especially an affordable housing shortage — in rural Butte County before the fire. In search of cheaper housing, survivors have moved to states like Oregon, Idaho and Texas. Or they just don't ever want to live in Paradise again because of all the horror they experienced that day.

The Safeway shopping center was burnt last November and remained a pile of debris until recently. Kirk Siegler/NPR hide caption

The Safeway shopping center was burnt last November and remained a pile of debris until recently.

Much of the debris has now been trucked away, though some businesses like this McDonald's in rubble are still grim reminders of last year's fire. Kirk Siegler/NPR hide caption

Much of the debris has now been trucked away, though some businesses like this McDonald's in rubble are still grim reminders of last year's fire.

At one point displacing close to 50,000 people, the Camp Fire was estimated to be the most expensive natural disaster in the world last year. Just removing the toxic debris cost almost $2 billion. The federal government is paying for about three quarters, including $200 million in direct aid to victims.

The Camp Fire, named for Camp Creek Road where it is believed to have started east of Paradise, was the single most destructive wildfire in California history and the worst in the United States in a century. Close to 19,000 structures burned. In Paradise, more than 11,000 houses burned to the ground. A year later, only 11 have been rebuilt. Eleven.

Paradise's Mayor Jody Jones plans to add to that tally though. Standing at her new home site, as her contractor and his crew hammer away in the background, Jones says those few who are rebuilding consider themselves pioneers.

"We never were victims, we're no longer survivors, we're pioneers," she says. "We're building a whole town from scratch, we're really proud of that."


Rethinking Disaster Recovery After A California Town Is Leveled By Wildfire

Jones says the town has passed some new, tougher building codes. That includes no more wood decks or fences and expanded setbacks between homes and flammable material. They're also looking to reconfigure some streets for better escape routes. Some people died while trying to evacuate in the gridlock.

But is all this enough? The Camp Fire continues to prompt some tough questions. Should towns like this built into dense overgrown dry forests where the homes themselves become ignition sources, be rebuilt in an era of climate change?

Jones is a little tired of the question. In her view, no one in Southern California seems to raise the question about rebuilding in high risk zones after fires like the recent Getty Fire in Los Angeles that forced thousands to evacuate.

"So what is the difference, is it because it's in L.A. and a metropolitan area and of course we should rebuild, but because we're a small town in the mountains we shouldn't," Jones asks.

Paradise is a shell of what it was. The population went from about 26,000 to an estimated 3,000 today.


Paradise Bobcats Football Team Gives California Town Hope After Fires

But there is progress here. Crews had to remove twice as much debris here as what was left from the twin towers after Sept. 11. Most of the toxic debris piles are now gone. So are the burnt cars that lined the roads giving it an apocalyptic feel. The demolished Safeway shopping center is finally cleared.

Tammy Waller is one of the rare people up here whose home survived the fire.

"The clean up has been way ahead of what I ever thought it would be," Waller says.

One of the first things Waller did when she moved back into her neighborhood in Magalia above Paradise was pack a go-bag with camping gear. It now sits next to her front door as a permanent fixture alongside her dog crates should she need to evacuate again.

Near her neighborhood one afternoon, she pointed up to power lines still mingling low among dense stands of trees and branches. Folks here recently had their power shut off for six days amid the bankrupt utility PG&E's new controversial safety plan.

Magalia resident Tammy Waller says it's unbelievable that even after the deadliest wildfire in California history was ignited by PG&E's faulty equipment, there are still power lines in her neighborhood perilously close to dense strands of trees and brush. Kirk Siegler/NPR hide caption

Magalia resident Tammy Waller says it's unbelievable that even after the deadliest wildfire in California history was ignited by PG&E's faulty equipment, there are still power lines in her neighborhood perilously close to dense strands of trees and brush.

Everyone's cable, Internet and cell phones went dark for the most part.

"If there were another fire, how would anybody know at say two o'clock in the morning," Waller says.

Nearby those lines, there's a mobile home with a layer of pine needles and duff several inches thick on its roof. There is also overgrown brush everywhere. The area still feels vulnerable. Yet Waller's not sure anything can really be done to prevent another fire on the scale and intensity as last year's.

"I know folks that had the cement siding, all of that, their house burnt to the ground," Waller says. "In that strong of a fire, there's nothing you're going to do about that."

Like a lot of Paradise area residents, Waller was drawn here by the beauty and quiet and the slower pace than her longtime home in the Los Angeles area. But now she's on the fence about staying here for the longterm.

Fire sweeps through Oakland hills - HISTORY

CARY, N.C. &ndash USA Baseball today named the coaching staff for the 2021 12U National Team highlighted by the naming of three-time 12U National Team assistant coach R.J. Farrell as manager. Farrell is joined on the 2021 staff by pitching coach Seth Kenny and assistant coaches Erik Johnson and Tanner Vesely.

"We are excited to have R.J. leading the 12U National Team this summer as he brings great experience not only with USA Baseball, but with the game in general to our players," said USA Baseball 12U National Team Director Will Schworer. "We are confident that he, and the rest of his staff, will serve as exceptional mentors for these young athletes both on and off the field as they continue to set a standard of excellence for our program."

Farrell was set to be the manager of the 2020 12U National Team before the COVID-19 pandemic forced the World Baseball Softball Confederation (WBSC) U-12 Baseball World Cup Americas Qualifier to be postponed. Currently, he is in his second year as an assistant coach and Athletic Support and Compliance Coordinator at Orange Lutheran High School (Orange, Calif.) after spending seven years as the head coach at Rancho Cucamonga High School (Rancho Cucamonga, Calif.), where 30 of his former players went on to play collegiate baseball.

Prior to coaching at Rancho Cucamonga High School, he spent one year as an assistant coach at Orange Lutheran High School in 2012, was an associate head coach and recruiting coordinator at Patten University (Oakland, Calif.) from 2009-2011, and served as an assistant coach at De La Salle High School (Concord, Calif.) from 2007-2008.

In his three years as an assistant coach for the 12U National Team, Farrell helped to lead Team USA to gold medals at the 2017 WBSC U-12 Baseball World Cup and the 2018 COPABE U-12 Pan-American Championships. In addition, Farrell has worked with USA Baseball at the 11U National Team Identification Series (NTIS), 12U National Open and the USA Baseball Futures Invitational, as well as serving as a 12U National Team Trials coach in 2016.

Kenny, who is making his USA Baseball national team coaching debut as the pitching coach for the 2021 12U National Team, is currently in his 11th year as the Director of Player Development and Youth Director for Top Tier Baseball. Kenny started his 20-year coaching career as a pitching coach for the Danville Dans, Austin Peay State University and Illinois State University from 2000-2008. Following his time at Illinois State, he returned to his role as pitching coach at Austin Peay, while also serving as the program's recruiting coordinator until joining Top Tier Baseball in 2010. In his career with USA Baseball, Kenny has coached at the 12U National Open since 2015, was a member of the 11U NTIS Task Force in 2017 and 2019, and was a 12U National Team Trials coach in 2018 and 2019. Kenny was also set to be the pitching coach for last year&rsquos 12U National Team before competition was canceled.

Johnson is also making his USA Baseball national team coaching debut in 2021 after no games were played last summer. However, he is no stranger to donning the red, white and blue, having first played for Team USA on the 1985 Collegiate National Team before suiting up as a coach. He has been involved with the NTIS since its inception in 2007, serving as a coach of the Northern California region until 2017 when he became a scouting director and coach for the Northwest Region. Additionally, he was a member of the 12U National Open coaching staff in both 2018 and 2019 and then served as a 2019 12U National Team Trials coach. Currently, he is the President and General Manager of EJ Sports where he has also been a coach since 1997.

Rounding out the staff is Vesely, who returns to the 12U National Team coaching staff after leading the 2015 squad to the program's second consecutive world championship at the WBSC U-12 Baseball World Cup. Prior to his time as manager, Vesely helped guide the 12U National Team to its first-ever gold medal at the 2013 International Baseball Federation and a silver medal at the 2014 COPABE "A" Pan-American Championships as an assistant coach.

Vesely began his national team coaching career more than a decade ago with back-to-back gold medals as an assistant coach with the 2008 and 2009 14U National Teams. In addition, he has served as a member of the Task Force at the National Team Championships in Arizona since 2008, a member of the 12U National Open coaching staff since 2013 and was a coach at the Women's National Team Trials in 2019. He was also part of the inaugural 2019 13U Athlete Development Program coaching staff and served on the NTIS Task Force in 2009, 2016 and 2018. Currently in his 16th season as an assistant coach at Corona del Sol High School (Tempe, Ariz.), Vesely also helped lead his team to the USA Baseball National High School Invitational in 2019.

The 2021 12U National Team identification process kickstarts at the 2021 11U Futures Invitational from June 24-27 in Cary, North Carolina. Following the identification events, players will be invited to participate in the 12U National Team Trials later in the summer.

The 12U National Team schedule is not yet finalized for 2021. Events and dates will be announced at a later time.

Raiders Will Try And Sweep Season Series Against Chargers In Week 16

Following an emotional win on what could be the final game at Qualcomm Stadium, the San Diego Chargers travel to Northern California looking to keep the good times rolling, this time hoping to upset the rival Oakland Raiders in Week 16. The Coliseum in the East Bay will be the site for this AFC West clash, scheduled for Thursday evening at 5:25 p.m. ET live on NFL Network.

This will be the second and final meeting of the season between these longtime intrastate rivals. For the Raiders, this is a golden opportunity to not only sweep the season series from the Bolts, but also avoid their third losing streak of the 2015 NFL season.

San Diego Chargers 2015 NFL Season

Needless to say, the Chargers season hasn’t exactly gone as planned, as this team enters Week 16 sporting a 4-10 record. With two games ahead of what is sure to be an adventurous offseason, San Diego is 3-5 at home, 1-5 on the road and winless against intradivisional opponents with a 0-4 mark.

This year’s Bolts are also 3-7 against intraconference foes, 1-3 against the National Football Conference and come in with a 2-3 record in their last five games played. The last time they faced the Raiders, the Chargers defense couldn’t get anything going, allowing 130 rushing yards and another 282 through the air on their way to an eight-point loss.

Chargers On Offense

Offensively, San Diego is not the powerhouse it once was. However, that doesn’t mean this team isn’t dangerous, and in fact, Jack Del Rio and his staff must prepare for two specific areas that the Bolts are sure to test them in.

First, there’s the fact that the Chargers are fourth in the league in passing yards per game. With Philip Rivers leading the charge, this team averages 294 passing yards per game, which is sure to keep the Raiders secondary honest.

Second, because of their “air of superiority,” it’s only natural that this team is also among the best in the NFL in total yards per game. Prior to Week 16, the Bolts average 378 yards per contest, which is good enough for sixth place in the National Football League.

Unfortunately, that’s where the good news end for Chargers fans, as the remaining two areas have been a huge problem for this offense. San Diego’s inability to run the football and put up points has been well documented, evidenced by the fact that they rank 25 th in points per game (20) and penultimate in the NFL in rushing yards per contest (84).

Chargers On Defense

Defense has also been another troublesome area for the Chargers in 2015 under defensive coordinator John Pagano. In short, San Diego ranks below average in three of the four major statistical categories used to measure the quality of a defensive unit in the NFL.

With 14 games in the books, San Diego’s defense ranks 19 th in both points per game (24.9) and total yards per game (357.6), while allowing an average of 120.6 rushing yards per game, which is good enough for 24 th place in the National Football League. The lone bright spot for this defense can be found in passing defense, where they rank 12 th in the league yielding 237 aerial yards per contest.

Chargers Players To Watch

On offense, there have been two players to watch, and this week against the Raiders, that remains the case. The heart and soul of this offensive attack is without question one of the best quarterback/tight end duos in pro football history, as quarterback Philip Rivers (385/577, 4287 yards, 26 TD, 12 INT) and tight end Antonio Gates (51 catches, 585 yards, TDs) must be accounted for at all times.

On the defensive side of the rock, the Chargers players to watch are unquestionably the team leaders in sacks. With that said, Del Rio and his staff must find a way to contain Melvin Ingram (8 sacks, 56 tackles, 3 forced fumbles) and Jeremiah Attaochu (6.5 sacks, 50 tackles, forced fumble), while tackles leader, Eric Weddle (75 tackles) will also try and impose his will on the Raiders offense.

Chargers vs. Raiders Outlook

Given the way the first meeting of the season went, most people are expecting the Oakland Raiders to take care of business once again, this time in front of the home crowd. Last time, they defeated the Chargers by a touchdown and a point after. This time around, most experts believe the Silver and Black will prevail by a pair of field goals to sweep the season series.

8 a.m. &ndash 4:30 p.m. Eastern time

Firefighter Safety Stand Down will focus on rehab

The 2021 Firefighter Safety Stand Down will take place June 20󈚾. This year's theme is &ldquoRebuild Rehab.&rdquo

Departments should revisit rehab procedures to ensure that post-incident protocol covers all areas of health and safety, including cardiac, nutrition, exposure, psychological, hydration and heat stress.

Evaluating COVID󈚷's long-term impacts on first responders

Learn about the STOP‑COVID Center's partnership with the Columbus (Ohio) Division of Fire to study the impact of COVID󈚷 on EMS workers and their families.

The STOP‑COVID researchers are working on 3 projects: surveillance, serological sciences and communication about testing and vaccines.

Current Events and Issues

A closer look: the impact of COVID󈚷 on public safety

Learn about a new Department of Homeland Security project that looks to develop strategies that increase first responder resilience to pandemics.

Research shows that maintaining morale and mental health of first responders is a significant concern.

Protecting wildland firefighters from smoke exposure

Learn about the hazards of wildland fire smoke exposure and the importance of assessing opportunities to reduce exposure against operational objectives.

Anticipated 2021 staffing shortages and COVID󈚷 make it critical to protect wildland firefighters from smoke exposure this fire season.

Analysis of NFIRS incidents in the WUI

The second report in our Wildfire Report Series examines 2009 to 2011 California wildland urban interface (WUI) incidents reported to the National Fire Incident Reporting System (NFIRS) in terms of travel time, loss measures and fire cause and compares the incidents to those outside WUI areas.

This report presents a novel method for identifying WUI incidents, creating a substantial new opportunity for linking local fire department incident responses and wildland fires.

Profile: residential building fires

Home fires account for the vast majority of civilian fire casualties. This report describes the characteristics of all residential building fires reported to the National Fire Incident Reporting System for 2017�.

These fires resulted in an annual average of 2,770 deaths, 11,650 injuries and $8.1 billion in property loss.

California Fire Perimeters (1989-2019)

The data is updated yearly with fire perimeters from the previous fire season.

Fire19_1 was released April 30th, 2020. Three hundred twelve wildfires from the 2019 fire season were added to the database (4 from the NPS, 180 from CAL FIRE, 68 from USFS, 21 from BLM).

CAL FIRE (including c ontract counties) , USDA Forest Service Region 5, USDI Bureau of Land Managment & National Park Service, and other agencies jointly maintain a comprehensive fire perimeter GIS layer for public and private lands throughout the state. The data covers fires back to 1878. Detailed metadata is provided for each individual feature class.

Historic Update Information:

Fire18_1 was released May 1st, 2019. 413 wildfires from the 2018 fire season were added to the database. There are two fires on BIA managed land that do not have 3 letter code identifiers and thus "Unit" was left blank. A hand drawn perimeter of the 1990 San Juan Canyon fire in BEU was submitted by a fire fighter who worked on the fire. The perimeter of the Thomas fire of 2017 was replaced this year by one collected by SBC that is based on someone walking some parts of the perimeter for better accuracy.

Fire17_1 was released April 13th, 2018. 612 wildfires from the 2017 fire season were added to the database. Three USFS wildfires from previous years were also added (1 from 2014, and 2 from 2016). Attributes from 3 USFS wildfires were also corrected (Willow 2015, Gilman and Meadow 2016). Two new USFS Forest were added to the domain list of Units (Rogue River-Siskiyou NF & Fremont NF).The Barry Point Fire is now attributed to the Rogue River-Siskiyou, previoulsy it was attributed to other (as a unit). There are two fires for 2018 already in the database.

Fire16_1 was released May 4nd, 2017. I 2014 VNC fire perimeter was replaced by a more accurate version. 3 new periemters from 2014 were added (VNC). A new periemter from 2013 added. 66 new perimeters from 2015 were added. 92 new periemters in Marin County, from 1917 to 1934 were added. They were hand drawn by the Marin County fire Chief Garber and digitized and submitted by NPS. 8 duplicate fire perimeters were deleted.

Fire15_1 was released June 9th, 2016. The ALARM_DATE and CONT_DATE fields have been changed from STRING fields to DATE fields. In the many cases where only the year of a fire existed (ex. 19170000) the tool couldn't process the data and the entry is NULL. In those cases, the year can be found in the YEAR field.

Fire14_1 was released in May, 2015. After release, the NPS supplied corretions for 14 wildfires and 67 prescribed burns. The corrected data was posted to FRAP's data download page as fire14_1 in late May. An effort was made to ensure multipart polygons were standardized throughout the dataset.

Fire 14_2 was released in July, 2015 to reflect that changes had been made to the original release in late May. Version 14_1 from late May is an exact copy of version 14_2 released in July.

Watch the video: Φωτιά ανάμεσα στα σπίτια στο Λόφο Παλλήνης