The Lasting Impact of War

The Lasting Impact of War


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10 Major Effects of World War I

World War I was a global conflict that began in Europe on July 28, 1914 and soon spread across the world involving more than a 100 nations in some way or other. It went on for more than four years ending on November 11, 1918. Also known as the Great War, it pitted the Central Powers of Germany, Austria-Hungary, the Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria against the Allies which was a coalition of many nations, most prominently the Great Britain, France, Russia, Japan and Italy. The First World War caused tens of millions of deaths with many more perishing due to resultant diseases and famines. It brought about many changes in world order with the collapse of several empires, revolutions in various parts of the world, the rise of new nation states and the emergence of the United States as a leading world power. Moreover, it led to millions of women entering the work force changing the pre-war gender-equation. Here are the 10 most important effects of the First World War.


Lasting Impacts of the Treaty of Versailles and Self-Determination in the Middle East

Secret deals made before-and-after World War I led the Arab people to not trust the British, French and American governments. According to Glencoe World History there was an agreement between the Arabs and the British in World War I. In exchange for military support the Western Allies needed the allies promised to recognize the independence of Arab states. The allies needed air support against the Ottoman Turks during World War I. The Western Allies nations lied and when the war was over did not recognize the independence of many Arab states. After the war France controlled Lebanon and Syria. Britain controlled Iraq, Jordan and Palestine. The backlash from this decision would have serious ramifications in the future for the Middle East. Many people inside the borders of these countries were divided and they had no strong identification with their designated countries.

British and French diplomats forged the secret Sykes-Picot agreement in 1916. The agreement would cut up the Ottoman Empire after World War I ended. The agreement effectively gave control of Syria, Lebanon and part of Turkey to the French. The agreement gave Palestine, Jordan and areas around the Persian Gulf and Baghdad to Britain. The agreement also allowed huge areas of land around Syria and Mesopotamia to be under French influence and land in the Jordan Valley and Arabia to be under British influence. The Arabs expected to be able to run their own countries after helping the allies fight the Turks during World War I.

Another great lie from the European leaders was the Balfour declaration. Britain's foreign secretary James Balfour wrote a letter to Lord Rothschild a leader of the Jewish community in Britain. This letter was eventually published in the Times of London. The British government wanted Jewish support for the allies and the letter expressed support for a national home for the Jews in Palestine. The declaration made more Jews move to Palestine. When the Nazi regime in Germany led to the Holocaust 6 million Jews were killed and even more Jews fled to Palestine. The violence between the Jews and the Muslims increased in Palestine. Britain declared in 1939 that only a certain number of Jews would be allowed to move into the area and that caused even more bloodshed.

After World War I when countries acquired foreign land they called it the mandate system in the Middle East. According to the system a nation officially governed another nation as a mandate on behalf of the League of Nations but did not own the territory. The mandate system was simply colonialism in disguise. Britain controlled Iraq, which was artificially created out of three former Ottoman provinces. Iraq had been politically stable when different ethnic and religious groups live together but when one country is built out of three provinces Britain found that the people would have preferred to rule themselves rather than be ruled by the Arabs. A Sunni minority ruled the Shiite majority until quite recently. The British ignored the problems because Iraq is an oil rich nation that they now controlled.

It is not surprising that after so many lies and false promises there is very little trust between the Europeans, Americans and the Middle East. There are long-lasting effects in the Middle East because of these broken promises. The lasting impact on relationships not only between Arab and Israel but Arab and Western countries have been strained since. Middle Eastern states were drawn by European powers in ways that would benefit themselves and didn't take into consideration the wants and desires of the people inside of these borders. There were cultures that became instant minorities and had no real power to rule themselves. They could not elect their own leaders because they did not have the numbers. Many countries still claim ancestral territories including Israel and Palestine with the West Bank and Gaza Strip. Arab nationalism has grown because although the Arabs were not a nation they are united by language, Islamic culture and religious heritage. The Arab Israeli war of 1948 was caused because both sides believe they have rights to a single piece of land. Each had deals with Western Allies to own this land and both were lied to. Secret deals made before-and-after World War I have lasting effects in the Middle East to this day.


The Lasting Impact of War - HISTORY

Private Shook is under a lot of pressure. A cantankerous team of mules is refusing to budge, paralyzing a battle-bound column that stretches for miles behind.

America is at war and for the first time in her history she has sent her army to fight on European soil. Her entire economy has been mobilized to achieve one goal - the defeat of Germany. The social impact of these actions will have lasting effects long after the war's end. Establishing the vote for women and the enactment of Prohibition were immediate outcomes. Among more far-reaching influences were a "live for the day" attitude that spawned the Roaring Twenties and a diplomatic retrenchment that sought to isolate America in the vain hope of avoiding the world's problems.

The fate of Private Shook and the obstinate mules is unrecorded. What we do know is that after World War I, America will never be the same.

Select the articles in this section to learn more about America's involvement in World War I - the "War to end all Wars."


The Lasting Impact of War - HISTORY

The Vietnam War had far-reaching consequences for the United States. It led Congress to replace the military draft with an all-volunteer force and the country to reduce the voting age to 18. It also inspired Congress to attack the "imperial" presidency through the War Powers Act, restricting a president's ability to send American forces into combat without explicit Congressional approval. Meanwhile, hundreds of thousands of Vietnamese refugees have helped restore blighted urban neighborhoods.

The Vietnam War severely damaged the U.S. economy. Unwilling to raise taxes to pay for the war, President Johnson unleashed a cycle of inflation.

The war also weakened U.S. military morale and undermined, for a time, the U.S. commitment to internationalism. The public was convinced that the Pentagon had inflated enemy casualty figures, disguising the fact that the country was engaged in a military stalemate. During the 1970s and 1980s, the United States was wary of getting involved anywhere else in the world out of fear of another Vietnam. Since then, the public's aversion to casualties inspired strict guidelines for the commitment of forces abroad and a heavy reliance on air power to project American military power.

The war in Vietnam deeply split the Democratic Party. As late as 1964, over 60 percent of those surveyed identified themselves in opinion polls as Democrats. The party had won seven of the previous nine presidential elections. But the prosecution of the war alienated many blue-collar Democrats, many of whom became political independents or Republicans. To be sure, other issues--such as urban riots, affirmative action, and inflation--also weakened the Democratic Party. Many former party supporters viewed the party as dominated by its anti-war faction, weak in the area of foreign policy, and uncertain about America's proper role in the world.

Equally important, the war undermined liberal reform and made many Americans deeply suspicious of government. President Johnson's Great Society programs competed with the war for scarce resources, and constituencies who might have supported liberal social programs turned against the president as a result of the war. The war also made Americans, especially the baby boomer generation, more cynical and less trusting of government and of authority.

Today, decades after the war ended, the American people remain deeply divided over the conflict's meaning. A Gallup Poll found that 53 percent of those surveyed believe that the war was "a well intentioned mistake," while 43 percent believe it was "fundamentally wrong and immoral."


The Lasting Impact of War - HISTORY

The Persian Conquest of Egypt of 525 BC saw Cambyses II of Persia conquer the fourth major power of the ancient near east, completing the series of conquests begun by his father Cyrus II the Great.

The battle of Pelusium (early 525 BC) was the decisive battle of the first Persian invasion of Egypt, and saw Cambyses II defeat Psamtik III, opening the rest of Egypt to conquest.

The siege of Memphis (early 525 BC) was the last recorded resistance to Cambyses II of Persia's invasion of Egypt, and came after the main Egyptian army had been defeated at Pelusium.

510 B.C.

500 B.C.

The Greco-Persian Wars of c.500-448 BC involved a series of clashes between the Persian Empire and the Greeks of Asia Minor and mainland Greece, and ended as something of a draw, with the Persians unable to conquer mainland Greece and the Greeks unable to maintain the independence of the cities of Asia Minor.

499 or 496 B.C.

The battle of Lake Regillus (499 or 496 BC) was a narrow Roman victory over the Latin League early in the life of the Republic that helped to prevent the last of the kings of Rome from regaining his throne.

499 B.C.

The Ionian Revolt (499-493 BC) was a major uprising of the Greek cities of Asia Minor against Persian rule, and is said to have either delayed an inevitable Persian invasion of mainland Greece, or made that invasion more likely.

The siege of Naxos (499 BC) was an unsuccessful Persian backed attempt to restore a part of exiled Naxian aristocrats. The failure of the attack played a part in the outbreak of the Ionian Revolt (499-494 BC), an attempt to overthrow Persian control of the Greek cities of Ionian.

498 B.C.

The battle of Sardis (498 BC) was a minor success for the Greeks during the Ionian Revolt, and despite being followed by a retreat and a defeat at Ephesus, helped to spread the revolt to Byzantium, the Hellespont and Caria.

The battle of Ephesus (498 BC) was a victory won by the Persians over a rebellious Greek army that was retreating from an attack on the city of Sardis (Ionian Revolt).

498/7 B.C.

497 B.C.

The battle of Salamis, c.497 BC, was a land and sea battle on Cyprus, won by the Persians on land and the Cypriotes and their Ionian allies at sea.

The siege of Paphos (c.497) was part of the Persian reconquest of Cyprus after the defeat of the Cyprian rebels at Salamis.

The siege of Soli (c.497 BC) was part of the Persian reconquest of Cyprus after the island's failed participation in the Ionian Revolt, and was the last to be concluded, lasting for four months.

The battle of the Maeander (497 BC) was the first of three battles between Carian rebels and the Persians that eventually disrupted the first major Persian counterattack during the Ionian Revolt.

The battle of Labraunda (497 BC) was the second of three battles between the Persians and Carian rebels during the Ionian Revolt, and was a second costly defeat for the Carians.

497-496 B.C.

494 B.C.

The battle of Lade (494 BC) was the decisive battle of the Ionian Revolt, and was a crushing Persian naval victory that eliminated Ionian naval power and left the individual Ionian cities exposed to attack.

The siege of Miletus (494 BC) followed the Ionian naval defeat in the battle of Lade, and saw the Persians recapture the city that had triggered the Ionian Revolt in 499.

The battle of Malene (494 BC) ended the career of Histiaeus, former Tyrant of Miletus, a former support of Darius who may have played a part in the outbreak of the Ionian Revolt, but who ended his career as something of an adventurer.

493 B.C.

The battle of the Helorus River (c.493 BC) saw Hippocrates, tyrant of Gela, defeat the army of Syracuse, but he was unable to capitalise on his victory by capturing the city.

490 B.C.

The siege of Carystus (490 BC) was an early Persian victory in the campaign that ended at the battle of Marathon.

The battle of Eretria (490 BC) was the second and final Persian success during the campaign that ended in defeat at Marathon.

The battle of Marathon (12 September 490 BC) was the decisive battle during Darius I of Persian's campaigns against the Greeks, and saw the Persians defeated by a largely Athenian army at Marathon in north-eastern Attica.

489 B.C.

483-474 B.C.

The First Veientine War (483-474 B.C.) was the first of three clashes between Rome and her nearest Etruscan neighbour, the city of Veii.

481-480 B.C.

480 B.C.

The battle of Artemisium (August 480 BC) was an inconclusive naval battle that was fought on the same three days as the battle of Thermopylae, and that ended when the Greek fleet retreated after learning of the Persian victory at Thermopylae.

The battle of Thermopylae (August 480 BC) is one of the most famous military defeats in history, and is best known for the fate of the 300 Spartans, killed alongside 700 Thespians on the final day of the battle.

The siege of Himera (480 BC) was the first military action of the Carthaginian invasion of Sicily of 480, and was ended by the dramatic Carthaginian defeat at the battle of Himera.

The battle of Salamis (23 or 24 September 480 BC) was the decisive battle of Xerxes's invasion of Greece, and was a major Greek naval victory that left the Persian army dangerously isolated in southern Greece.

The siege of Andros (c.480 BC) is an incident recorded by Herodotus as taking part in the period after the Greek naval victory at Salamis.

The battle of Himera (autumn 480 BC) was a famous victory won by the Greeks of Syracuse over an invading Carthaginian army.

480-479 B.C.

479 B.C.

Early

27 August

The battle of Plataea (27 August 479 BC) was the decisive land battle during the Persian invasion of Greece (480-479) and saw the Persian land army left behind after the failure of the 480 campaign defeated by a coalition of Greek powers.

The battle of Mycale (479 BC) was a land battle that resulted in the destruction of the Persian fleet in Asia Minor, and that encouraged the Ionian cities to rebel against Persian authority.

479-8 B.C.

472-1 B.C.

474 B.C.

466 B.C.

465 B.C.

451 B.C.

The siege of Motyum (451 BC) was the first known attempt by the Sicel leader Ducetius to conquer an area held by one of the major Greek powers of Sicily, and led to his greatest victory over the Greeks at the battle of Motyum.

The battle of Motyum (451 BC) was the most important battlefield victory won by the Sicel leader Ducetius, but he was defeated at Nomae in the following year and forced into exile.

450 B.C.

448 B.C.

446 B.C.

440 B.C.

437-434 or 428-425 B.C.

The Second Veientine War (437-434 or 428-425 B.C.) was fought for control of the crossing over the Tiber at Fidenae, five miles upstream from Rome.

437 or 428 B.C.

The battle of the Anio (437 or 428 B.C.) was a Roman victory early in the Second Veientine War that was won after Lars Tolumnius, king of Veii, was killed in single combat

435 or 426 B.C.

The battle of Nomentum (435 or 426 B.C.) was a Roman victory over a combined army from Veii and Fidenae that was followed by a successful Roman attack on Fidenae, and possibly by the end of the Second Veientine War.

435 or 426 B.C.

The siege of Fidenae (435 or 426 B.C.) saw the Romans capture the town only five miles upstream on the Tiber and eliminate the last Veientine enclave on the right bank of the Tiber.

435-431 B.C.

435 B.C.

The siege of Epidamnus (435 BC) saw the Corcyraeans capture their own former colony, overcoming a garrison partly provided by their own mother city of Corinth

The battle of Leucimme (435 BC) was a naval victory won by Corcyra over the Corinthians that gave them control of the seas around the western coast of Greece and allowed them to launch raids on Corinth's allies for much of the next year

433 B.C.

432-30/29 B.C.

431 B.C.

429 B.C.

The battle of Spartolus of 429 BC was a costly Athenian defeat in a battle fought just outside the city of Spartolus in Chalcidice. s

The battle of Stratus (429 BC) was a Spartan defeat that ended a brief campaign designed to drive the Athenians out of Acarnania, the area to the north-west of the entrance to the Gulf of Corinth (Great Peloponnesian War)

The battle of Chalcis (429 BC) was the first of two Athenian naval victories won in the same year in the Gulf of Corinth that helped demonstrate their naval superiority in the early part of the Great Peloponnesian War.

The battle of Naupactus (429 BC) was a second Athenian naval victory won in a short period around the Gulf of Corinth, but was won by a very narrow margin and only after the narrow failure of a Peloponnesian plan to trap the entire Athenian fleet.

429-427 B.C.

428-427 B.C.

426 B.C.

The battle of Aegitium (426 BC) was an Athenian defeat that ended a short-lived invasion of Aetolia.

The siege of Naupactus (426 BC) was a short-lived Spartan attempt to capture a key Athenian naval base on the northern shores of the Gulf of Corinth.

The battle of Olpae (426 BC) was an Athenian victory that ended a Spartan campaign aimed at the conquest of Acarnania and Amphilochia.

The battle of Idomene (426 BC) was a second victory in three days won by Demosthenes against the Ambraciots in the north-west of Greece.

The battle of Tanagra (426 BC) was a minor Athenian victory won close to the city of Tanagra in Boeotia.

425 B.C.

The battle of Pylos (425 BC) was the first part of a two-part battle most famous the surrender of a force of Spartan hoplites trapped on the island of Sphacteria.

The battle of Sphacteria (425 BC) was the second part of a two-part battle which ended with the surrender of a force of Spartan hoplites (Great Peloponnesian War).

The battle of Solygia (425 BC) was a minor Athenian victory during a raid on Corinth, but one that had little long term impact (Great Peloponnesian War).

424 B.C.

423-421 B.C.

423 or 422 B.C.

422 B.C.

421 B.C.

418 B.C.

The siege of Orchomenes (418 B.C.) was a short-lived success won by an alliance of Greek cities led by Argos and that included Athens.

The battle of Mantinea (418 BC) was a Spartan victory over an alliance of Peloponnesian states led by Argos and supported by Athens. The alliance survived into the following year, but the threat that it originally posed to Sparta was gone.

415 B.C.

414-413 B.C.

The Athenian siege of Syracuse of 414-413 BC was a two year long epic that ended with the total defeat and destruction of the Athenian army, and that put Athens onto the defensive in the renewed fighting in the Great Peloponnesian War.

412 B.C.

The unsuccessful siege of Miletus (412 BC) was a major Athenian setback early in the Ionian phase of the Great Peloponnesian War, and helped establish a revolt against Athenian power in the area.

The battle of Panormus (412 BC) was a minor Athenian victory during the longer siege of Miletus, most notable for the death of the Spartan commander Chalcideus.

The battle of Miletus (412 BC) was an Athenian victory fought outside the walls of Miletus, but that was followed almost immediately by the arrival of a Peloponnesian fleet and an Athenian retreat.

412/411 B.C.

411 B.C.

The battle of Eretria (411 BC) was a naval defeat suffered by Athens that was followed by a major revolt on the island of Euboea, cutting the city off from one of its last sources of food (Great Peloponnesian War).

The battle of Cynossema (411 BC) was the first major Athenian victory since their disastrous defeat on Sicily in 413 BC, and helped restore morale in the city after a series of setbacks and a period of political upheaval.

410 B.C.

409/408 B.C.

408 B.C.

The siege of Chalcedon (408 BC) was part of an Athenian attempt to regain control of the Bosphorus and ensure the safety of Athens's food supplies from the Black Sea.

The siege of Byzantium (408 BC) was an Athenian victory that saw them regain control over the Bosphorus, and remove a threat to Athens's food supplies from the Black Sea.

407 B.C.

406 B.C.

The siege of Delphinium (406 BC) was a minor Peloponnesian success that came early in the command of Callicratidas, an admiral who replaced the popular Lysander in command of the Peloponnesian fleet in Asia Minor.

The siege of Methymne (406 BC) was a second success for the Peloponnesian fleet commanded by Callicratidas, and saw the loss of a second Athenian stronghold on the coast of Asia Minor.

The siege of Mytilene (406 BC) saw the Peloponnesians attempt to capture this Athenian held city on Lesbos. The siege was ended by the Athenian naval victory at Arginusea, but the reaction to the aftermath of this battle played a part in the final Athenian defeat in the Great Peloponnesian War.

The battle of the Arginusae Islands (406 BC) was the last major Athenian victory of the Great Peloponnesian War, but after the battle six of the eight victorious generals were executed for failing to rescue the crews of the twenty five Athenian warships lost during the battle.

405 B.C.

405-396 B.C.

The Third Veientine War (405-396 B.C.) saw the Roman Republic finally capture and destroy their closest rival, the Etruscan city of Veii, after a siege that lasted for ten years

The ten year long siege of Veii (405-396 B.C.) was the main event of the Third Veientine War and saw the Romans finally conquer their nearest rival, the Etruscan city of Veii.

404 B.C.

The siege of Athens (to 404 BC) was the final act of the Great Peloponnesian War, and confirmed the Spartan victory that had been made almost inevitable at the naval battle of Aegospotami in 405 BC.

403 B.C.

The battle of Phyle (403 BC) was the first of three battles that saw the Athenian democrats led by Thrasybulus overthrow a Spartan-supported oligarchy that was then ruling in Athens.

The battle of Munychia (403 BC) was a significant victory for Democratic rebels against the Spartan imposed rule of the Thirty at Athens, and played a significant part in the reestablishment of Democracy at Athens in the aftermath of the Great Peloponnesian War.

The battle of Piraeus (403 BC) saw the Spartans defeat the pro-democratic forces of Thrasybulus outside the port of Athens, but divisions within the Spartan leadership meant that the Athenians were still able to restore their democracy

400-387 B.C.

395-386 B.C.

395 B.C.

The battle of Sardis (395 BC) was a minor victory for Agesilaus II of Sparta during his period in command of the Spartan war effort in Asia Minor that triggered the fall of the Persian satrap Tissaphernes and led to a six month truce in Caria and Lydia.

The battle of Haliartus (395 BC) was the first significant fighting during the Corinthian War (395-386 BC) and was a Spartan defeat that saw the death of Lysander, their victorious leader from of the Great Peloponnesian War.

394 B.C.

The battle of Naryx (394 BC) was a costly victory won by the forces of an anti-Spartan alliance over a Phocian army early in the Corinthian War (395-386 BC).

The battle of Nemea (394 BC) was the first major fighting on the Corinthian front that gave the Corinthian War (395-386 BC) its name, and was an inconclusive Spartan victory.

The battle of Cnidus (394 BC) was a decisive Persian naval victory that ended the brief period of Spartan naval supremacy that followed the end of the Great Peloponnesian War, and in its aftermath the short-lived Spartan domination of the Aegean crumbled.

The battle of Coronea (394 BC) was an inconclusive Spartan victory that saw Agesilaus II defeat an allied army that was attempting to block his path across Boeotia, but not by a big enough margin to allow him to continue with his invasion (Corinthian War, 395-386 BC).

392 B.C.

390 B.C.

The First Gallic Invasion of Italy of 390 B.C. was a pivotal event in the history of the Roman Republic and saw the city occupied and sacked for the last time in eight hundred years.

18 July

The battle of the Allia (18 July 390 B.C.) was one of the most embarrassing defeats in Roman history, and left the city defenceless in the face of a Gallic war band.

The sack of Rome (390 B.C.) was the worst recorded disaster in the history of the early Roman Republic, and saw a Gallic war band led by Brennus capture and sack most of the city, after winning an easy victory on the Allia

The battle of the Trausian Plain (c.390-384 B.C.) probably saw an Etruscan army from the city of Caere defeat all or part of the Gallic war band that was responsible for the sack of Rome

386 B.C.

385 B.C.

382-379 B.C.

382 B.C.

381 B.C.

The battle of Apollonia (381 BC) saw Sparta's ally Derdas of Elimia defeat an Olynthian cavalry raid that had entered the territory of Apollonia.

The battle of Olynthus (381 BC) was the second battle fought by the Spartans close to the city during their expedition to Chalcidice, and ended with defeat and the death of the Spartan commander Teleutias.

381-379 B.C.

379-371 B.C.

378 B.C.

The Theban campaign of 378 BC was the first of two unsuccessful invasions of Boeotia led by King Agesilaus II of Sparta, and ended after a standoff close to the city of Thebes.

The battle of Thespiae (378 BC) was a Theban victory that ended a period of Sparta raids from their base at Thespiae, and in which the Spartan commander Phoebidas was killed.

377 B.C.

376 B.C.

The battle of Cithaeron (376 BC) was a minor Spartan defeat that prevented them from conducting a fourth invasion of Boeotia in four years (Theban-Spartan War).

The battle of Naxos (September 376 BC) was the first naval victory won by an official Athenian fleet since the end of the Great Peloponnesian War, and saw a fleet besieging Naxos defeat a Spartan fleet sent to lift the siege.

375 B.C.

The battle of Alyzeia (June or July 375 BC) saw the Athenians defeat a Spartan fleet that was supporting an attempt to move troops across the Corinthian Gulf into Boeotia (Theban-Spartan or Boeotian War, 379-371 BC).

The battle of Tegyra (Spring 375 BC) saw an outnumbered Theben defeat a force of Spartan hoplites twice its own size, an early sign that the Thebans were no longer intimidated by the impressive reputation of the Spartans (Theban-Spartan War, 379-371 BC).

373-372 B.C.

371 B.C.

371-362 B.C.

C.370-350 B.C.

367-366 B.C.

The siege of Adramyttium or Assus, c.367-6 BC, saw forces loyal to Artaxerxes II besiege the rebel satrap Ariobarzanes before withdrawing after King Agesilaus of Sparta arrived to help the rebels.

The siege of Sestus (c.367-6 BC) saw forces loyal to the Persian emperor Artaxerxes II unsuccessful besiege allies of the rebel satrap Ariobarzanes, during the second stage of the Satrap's revolt.

358 B.C.

357-355 B.C.

357 B.C.

357 or 356 B.C.

356 B.C.

The siege of Samos (356 BC) saw the rebels against Athens besiege one of the loyal members of the Athenian League (Social War).

The siege of Potidaea (356 BC) saw Philip II of Macedon capture the strongly fortified city at the head of the Pallene peninsula, but then hand it over to Olynthus in order to secure an alliance with that city.

355 B.C.

The battle of Embata (356 BC) was a minor naval defeat for Athens during the Social War, but in the aftermath two of her best commanders were put on trial, and the remaining commander soon provoked the Persians.

Outbreak of the Third Sacred War (to 346 BC), which began as a dispute between Thebes and their neighbours in Phocis over the cultivation of sacred land, but expanded to include most of the Greek powers and was ended by the intervention of Philip II of Macedon, helping to confirm his status as a major power in Greece

The battle of Phaedriades (355 BC) was a Phocian victory early in the Third Sacred War, fought on the slopes of Mount Parnassus.

355-354 B.C.

354 B.C.

The battle of Argolas (Spring 354 BC) was a Phocian victory over a Thessalian army early in the Third Sacred War, fought at an otherwise unknown hill somewhere in Locris

The battle of Neon (354 BC) was a battle of the Third Sacred War, and was notable for the death of the Phocian leader Philomelus.

354 or 353 B.C.

353 B.C.

352 B.C.

The battle of Orchomenus (c.352 BC) was the first in a series of defeats suffered by the Phocian leader Phayllus during a failed invasion of Boeotia (Third Sacred War).

The battle of the Cephisus River (c.352) was the second in a series of defeats suffered by the Phocian leader Phayllus during a failed invasion of Boeotia (Third Sacred War).

The battle of Coroneia (c.352) was the second in a series of defeats suffered by the Phocian leader Phayllus during a failed invasion of Boeotia (Third Sacred War).

The battle of Abae (c.352 BC) was one of a series of setbacks suffered by the Phocian leader Phayllus, and came after a unsuccessful invasion of Boeotia and a failure to capture the city of Naryx (Third Sacred War).

The battle of Chaeroneia (c.352 BC) was an early defeat in the career of Phalacus as leader of the Phocians (Third Sacred War).

349 B.C.

348 B.C.

346 B.C.

The siege of Halus (346 BC) was carried out as the same time as peace negotiations between Philip II of Macedon and Athens, and may have been part of Philip's wider plan for a campaign in central Greece (Third Sacred War).

The Peace of Philocrates (346 BC) ended the ten year long War of Amphipolis between Athens and Macedon, and helped establish Philip II of Macedon as a power in central and southern Greece

Philip II of Macedon ends the Third Sacred War (from 355 BC), forcing Phocis to surrender

343 B.C.

The First Samnite War (343-341 BC) was the first of three clashes between Rome and the Samnite hill tribes, and ended in a Roman victory that saw the Republic begin to expand into Campania.

The battle and siege of Capua of 343 B.C. triggered the First Samnite War (343-341 B.C.), the first of three wars between Rome and the Samnites.

The battle of Mount Gaurus, 343 B.C., was the opening battle of the First Samnite War (343-341 B.C.), and was a hard fought Roman victory.

The battle of Saticula (343 B.C.) was a Roman victory that saw a rare example of the Roman army fighting at night in an attempt to avoid a disaster.

The battle of Suessula (343 B.C.) was the final major clash during the First Samnite War (343-341 B.C.), and was a major Roman victory

340 B.C.

The battle of Trifanum (340 BC) was a Roman victory that ended the Campanian phase of the Latin War of 340-338 BC.

340-339 B.C.

The siege of Perinthus (340-339 BC) was an unsuccessful attempt by Philip II of Macedon to defeat a wavering ally, and was conducted alongside an equally unsuccessful siege of Byzantium. Both sieges took place in the period just before the Fourth Sacred War.

The siege of Byzantium (340-339 BC) was an unsuccessful attempt by Philip II to defeat a former ally, and was begun after his siege of nearby Perinthus ran into difficulties. Both sieges came in the build-up to the Fourth Sacred War.

339-338 B.C.

339 B.C.

The battle of the Fenectane Plains (339 BC) was a Roman victory in the second year of the Latin War of 340-338 BC

338 B.C.

The battle of Pedum (338 BC) was the decisive battle of the Latin War of 340-338BC and saw the Romans defeat a Latin army sent to protect Pedum and capture the city in the same day

327-6 B.C.

The Roman siege of Neapolis (Naples) of 327-326 BC was the first fighting in what developed into the Second Samnite War (327-304 BC).

325 B.C.

324-261 B.C.

323 B.C.

Settlement at Babylon, the first attempt to divide up power within Alexander's empire

Start of the Lamian or Hellenic War, an attempt by an alliance of Greek cities led by Athens to escape Macedonian control

322 B.C.

Siege of Lamia sees alliance led by Athens trap Antipater in the town of Lamia. Death of Athenian general Leosthenes

Spring

August

Outbreak of the First Diadoch War, (to 320 BC) between the successors of Alexander the Great

321 B.C.

Truce between Antipater and the Aetolians ends the Lamian War.

Death of Craterus in a battle against Eumenes of Cardia

Perdiccas murdered by his officers in Egypt

320 B.C.

Settlement at Triparadisus second attempt to divide power in Alexander's empire

319 B.C.

316 B.C.

Battle of Gabiene, marks the end of the Second Diadoch War in Asia (from 319 BC)

315 B.C.

Outbreak of Third Diadoch War (to 311 BC)

The battle of Lautulae (315 BC) was the second major Samnite victory during the Second Samnite War, but one that didn't produce any long term advantage

314 B.C.

The siege of Bovianum of 314-313 BC was a short-lived Roman attempt to take advantage of their victory at Tarracina in 314

311 B.C.

End of Third Diadoch War (from 315 BC), ends with all of the main contestants back where they started.

310 B.C.

The battle of Perusia, 310/309 BC, was a Roman victory that forced several key Etruscan cities to make peace with Rome (Etruscan War, 311/308 BC)

The battle of Lake Vadimo (310 BC) was a major Roman victory that broke the power of the Etruscan cities involved in the short Etruscan War of 311/10-308

308 B.C.

The battle of Mevania, 308 BC, was a final Roman victory in the Etruscan War, although it was fought against the Umbrians

307 B.C.

C.306-3 B.C.

301 B.C.

Fourth Diadoch War ends (from 307 BC) with defeat and death of Antigonus at the battle of Ipsus


What Was the Cause of The Bosnian War?

The Bosnian War began in 1992 and lasted until 1995, though the cause of the Bosnian War has roots in World War II and its impact is still being felt in 2017. The war led to the deaths of around 100,000 people. It also spurred the genocide of at least 80 percent Bosnian Muslims, also called Bosniaks.

In the aftermath of the Second World War, the Balkan states of Bosnia-Herzegovina, Serbia, Montenegro, Croatia, Slovenia and Macedonia became a part of the People’s Republic of Yugoslavia, a communist country held together by its leader Josip Broz Tito. Part-Croat and part-Slovene, Tito checked both separatism and ethnic nationalism with stiff jail sentences.

Tito rebuilt Yugoslavia as a Communist federation of six equal republics, but the ethnic conflict was never far from the surface. Serbians disliked Tito’s recognition of the Macedonians and the Muslims of Bosnia-Herzegovina as distinct nationalities. However, these bad relationships alone were not the cause of the Bosnian War. The collapse of Communism in the Balkan states was punctuated by Tito’s death in 1980. Following this, the Balkan states clamored for independence.

Slobodan Milosevic rose to power in Yugoslavia in 1986 as a lightning rod for nationalism. Milosevic was a leader who deliberately created conflict between Serbians, Croatians and Muslim Bosniaks (the three main ethnic groups in the region). Milosevic, also called “The Butcher of the Balkans” took advantage of the ethnic tensions that would be the cause of the Bosnian War.

Croatia and Slovenia fought alongside Germany and Austria in World War I, while Serbia fought alongside the allies. Because of this, Serbs regarded themselves as the dominant partners when they joined the Croats and Slovenes in 1918 to found the state what would be called Yugoslavia.

By using old grudges, stirring up nationalistic emotions, and inciting dreams of a “Greater Serbia,” a country made up of only Serbians, Milosevic succeeded in rallying support for himself. By 1971 in Bosnia, Muslims represented the largest single population group. In a 1991 census, Bosnia’s population of some four million was nearly half Bosniak.

Bosnia’s Serbs, led by a man named Radovan Karadzic and backed by Milosevic, resisted and threatened bloodshed when Bosnia proclaimed its independence in 1992. The Serbs wished to remain part of Yugoslavia and create a nation only for Serbians.

Two days after the European Community and the United States recognized Bosnia’s independence, the Serbian Democratic party — whose members wanted to be part of the “Greater Serbia” — launched an offensive with the bombardment of Bosnia’s capital, Sarajevo.

The Bosnian War was marked by ethnic cleansing, with thousands of civilians killed and millions displaced. On July 11, 1995, Serbian forces attacked and overwhelmed the city of Srebrenica, a city the U.N. had designated as a safe haven in 1993. The forces separated the Bosniak civilians at Srebrenica, putting the women and girls on buses and sending them away while killing the men and boys on the spot or bussing them off to mass killing sites. An estimated 8,000 people died in the massacre.

Following this, awareness and international outcry over the war reached its zenith. In November 1995, the United States sponsored peace talks between the Bosniaks, Serbs and Croats, resulting in the creation of a federalized Bosnia divided between a Croat-Bosniak federation and a Serb republic.

Tribunals over the war crimes committed during the war were established 23 years ago. Serbia only acknowledged the massacre of Srebrenica in 2004. Milosevic was jailed in 2002 on 66 counts of genocide and war crimes and died in his cell in March of 2006.

Last month in 2017, a Croatian general charged with war crimes had his sentence of 20 years upheld, and instead of submitting himself he chose to drink poison in the middle of the courtroom.


What Were Some of the Effects of the Cold War?

Some effects of the Cold War included a stagnant Russian economy, a large loss of life and an increased chance of nuclear war. Tensions created by the superpowers during the Cold War remained high after the war ended.

Millions of people, both civilians and military personnel, lost their lives in Korea, Vietnam and in other parts of the world where United States and Soviet Union proxy wars took place. Russia was left with a devastated economy that forced the country to cut military spending and threw it into a recession. Economic and social tensions soared for years after the Cold War ended and because so many nuclear weapons were stockpiled during the war, the chances of an intentional or accidental nuclear strike were dramatically increased.

At the beginning of the Cold War, there were two superpowers, the U.S. and Russia. By the end of the war, only one superpower remained, the U.S. Russia had to dismantle most of its military and close down military production facilities and bases throughout the country. This caused millions of people to become unemployed, furthering Russia's financial crisis.

Some countries gained and lost territory after the Cold War. South Yemen gained territory and became known as Yemen. West Germany gained territory and was called Germany. Russia, China, Ethiopia, the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and South Africa all lost territory at the end of the Cold War.


Effects of the Mexican-American War

The Mexican-American War (1846-1848) was caused by many factors.

Going back to 1836, one of the reasons was the Treaty of Velasco. The secret treaty had called for recognition of the Rio Grande as the border, and the release of Santa Anna. Since Santa Anna was not released immediately, the border was never officially established.

The Rio Grande border was another cause of the war. Mexico believed that the border was actually the Nueces River, about 200 miles north of the Rio Grande.

Texans, and the US claimed the Rio Grande as the border. The disputed land in between the two rivers is a rich farmland.

The final cause was Texas joining the United States in 1845. Mexico became alarmed that the US was out to grab all the land it could, and that Mexico would be it's next target.


Fighting in the Mexican-American War lasted only two years from 1846 to 1848. The battles ranged from the Rio Grande, down to Mexico City from New Mexico to California.

All battles were won by Texan, or US forces. In fact, most US Army deaths were caused by disease and not battles!


It began after the stock market crash of October 1929, which sent Wall Street into a panic and wiped out millions of investors. Over the next several years, consumer spending and investment dropped, causing steep declines in industrial output and employment as failing companies laid off workers.

The Great Depression began with the stock market crash of 1929 and was made worse by the 1930s Dust Bowl. President Franklin D. Roosevelt responded to the economic calamity with programs known as the New Deal.


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